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  • Nassima Balli
  • Dalila Lebsir
  • Safia Habila
  • Hanane Boutenoun
  • Lilia Boussouf
  • Naila Bouchekhou
  • Sakina Ikram Belkouicem


Goat milk, heavy metals, non-cancer risk assessment, cancer risk assessment, Jijel province


The continuous urbanization and industrialization in many parts of the world and Algeria have led to high levels of heavy metal contamination in the soil, groundwater, and food chain products. Given the importance of milk and dairy products in the human diet, the aim of this study is to estimate the concentration of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper) in goat’s milk and to assess the potential health risks of those metals on adult consumers. To do so, goat milk was collected from three regions (El-Milia, Texenna, and Djimla) of Jijel, Algeria. Three samples were taken from each region and mixed to create a final sample that was pooled from each region. Then, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals. On the other hand, an online survey was carried out to estimate the daily intake of goat milk.  The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk values were calculated. Our experiment demonstrated that the concentration of lead, cadmium, and copper significantly exceed the acceptable limit values; whereas, the zinc concentration was within the acceptable limit.  The highest lead concentration was found in the El-milia region (0.42 mg/kg). The concentration gradient of average cadmium is as follows: C Djimla>C El-milia>C Texenna. They range from (0.0359±0.00247) mg/kg, (0.0155±0.00214) mg/kg, (0.00397±0.000742) mg /kg respectively, while the Texenna region has the highest copper concentration. Daily estimated intake (EDI) of all metals did not exceed the limit value.  In addition, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of all metals and hazard index (HI) of the mixture of metals were both below the acceptable limit, representing no carcinogenic risk to the residents. Contrariwise, it was found that the carcinogenic risk (CR) for Cd was higher than the acceptable level (1×106), as was the cumulative carcinogenic risk for Cd and Pb. This study will be quite helpful for both inhabitants in taking protective measures and government officials in reducing heavy metal contamination.


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How to Cite

Balli, N., Lebsir, D., Habila, S., Boutenoun, H., Boussouf, L., Bouchekhou, N., & Belkouicem, S. I. (2023). HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN GOAT’S MILK FOR ADULTS GROUP IN JIJEL PROVINCE (ALGERIA). Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 17(1), 93–110. Retrieved from




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