Abstract views: 326 / PDF downloads: 419


  • Nassima Balli
  • Dalila Lebsir
  • Safia Habila
  • Hanane Boutenoun
  • Lilia Boussouf
  • Naila Bouchekhou
  • Sakina Ikram Belkouicem


Goat milk, heavy metals, non-cancer risk assessment, cancer risk assessment, Jijel province


The continuous urbanization and industrialization in many parts of the world and Algeria have led to high levels of heavy metal contamination in the soil, groundwater, and food chain products. Given the importance of milk and dairy products in the human diet, the aim of this study is to estimate the concentration of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper) in goat’s milk and to assess the potential health risks of those metals on adult consumers. To do so, goat milk was collected from three regions (El-Milia, Texenna, and Djimla) of Jijel, Algeria. Three samples were taken from each region and mixed to create a final sample that was pooled from each region. Then, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals. On the other hand, an online survey was carried out to estimate the daily intake of goat milk.  The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk values were calculated. Our experiment demonstrated that the concentration of lead, cadmium, and copper significantly exceed the acceptable limit values; whereas, the zinc concentration was within the acceptable limit.  The highest lead concentration was found in the El-milia region (0.42 mg/kg). The concentration gradient of average cadmium is as follows: C Djimla>C El-milia>C Texenna. They range from (0.0359±0.00247) mg/kg, (0.0155±0.00214) mg/kg, (0.00397±0.000742) mg /kg respectively, while the Texenna region has the highest copper concentration. Daily estimated intake (EDI) of all metals did not exceed the limit value.  In addition, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of all metals and hazard index (HI) of the mixture of metals were both below the acceptable limit, representing no carcinogenic risk to the residents. Contrariwise, it was found that the carcinogenic risk (CR) for Cd was higher than the acceptable level (1×106), as was the cumulative carcinogenic risk for Cd and Pb. This study will be quite helpful for both inhabitants in taking protective measures and government officials in reducing heavy metal contamination.


International Farm Comparison Network. (2018): Dairy Outlook 2030. Accessed May 28, 2020. https: / / ifcndairy .org/ wp -content/uploads/ 2018/ 06/ IFCN -Dairy -Outlook -2030 -Brochure .pdf.

Grace, D., Wu, F., Havelaar, A.H. (2020): MILK Symposium review: Foodborne diseases from milk and milk products in developing countries-Review of causes and health and economic implications. Journal of Dairy Science 103(11):9715-9729.

Fayet, F., Ridges, L.A., Wright, J.K., Petocz, P. (2013): Australian children who drink milk (plain or flavored) have higher milk and micronutrient intakes but similar body mass index to those who do not drink milk. Nutrition Research 33(2):95–102.

Iannotti, L., Lesorogol, C. (2014): Animal milk sustains micronutrient nutrition and child anthropometry among pastoralists in Samburu, Kenya. American Journal of physical Anthropology 155(1):66-76.

De Oliveira, T.M., Peres, J.A., Felsner, M.L., Justi, K.C. (2017): Direct determination of Pb in raw milk by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) with electrothermal atomization sampling from slurries. Food Chemistry 229:721–725.

Licata, P., Trombetta, D., Critani, M., Giofre, F., Martino, D., Calo, M., Naccari, F. (2004): Levels of “toxic” and “essential” metals in samples of bovine milk from various dairy farms in Calabria, Italy. Environment International. 30 (1): 1.

Soma, G., Gurdeep, S., Jha, V.N., Tripathi, R.M. (2011): Risk assessment due to ingestion of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in the milk samples: a case study from a proposed uranium mining area, Jharkhand. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 175 (1-4): 157-66.

Malhat, F., Hagag, M., Saber, A., Fayz, A.E. (2012): Contamination of cows milk by heavy metal in Egypt. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 88(4): 611-613.

Winiarska-Mieczan, A. (2014): Cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in breast milk in Poland. Biological Trace Element Research. 157(1):36-44.

Shahbazi, Y., Ahmadi, F., Fakhari, F. (2016): Voltammetric determination of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Se in milk and dairy products collected from Iran: An emphasis on permissible limits and risk assessment of exposure to heavy metals. Food Chemistry.192:1060-1067.

Jarup, L. (2003): Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin 68:167-182.

Cao, H.B., Zhang, H., Qiao, L., Chen, J.J. (2010): Exposure and risk assessment for aluminium and heavy metals in Puerhtea. Science of the Total Environment 408 (14): 2777-84.

Gaetke, L.M., Chow-Johnson, H.S., Chow, C.K. (2014): Copper: Toxicological relevance and mechanisms. Archives of Toxicology 88(11):1929–1938.

Balsano, C., Porcu, C., Sideri, S. (2018): Is copper a new target to counteract the progression of chronic diseases? Metalloids 10(12):1712–1722.

Garber, K. (2015): Cancer's copper connections. Science 349(6244):129.

Poudel, R.R., Bhusal, Y., Tharu, B., Kafle, N.K. (2017): Role of zinc in insulin regulation and diabetes. Journal of Social Health 5:83-7.

Maywald, M., Wessels, I., Rink, L. (2017): Zinc Signals and Immunity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18(10):2222.

Kafaei, R., Tahmasbi, R., Ravanipour, M., Vakilabadi, D.R., Ahmadi, M., Omrani, A., Ramavandi, B. (2017): Urinary arsenic, cadmium, manganese, nickel, and vanadium levels of schoolchildren in the vicinity of the industrialised area of Asaluyeh, Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24(30):23498–23507.

Ahmad, I., Zaman, A., Samad, N., Ayaz, M., Rukh, S. (2017): Atomic absorption spectrophotometery detection of heavy metals in milk of camel, cattle, buffalo and goat from various areas of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques 8(367) :2.

Krzywy, I., Krzywy, E., Pastuszak-Gabinowska, M., Brodkiewicz, A. (2010): Lead—Is there something to be afraid of? Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis 56: 118–128.

Wani, A.L., Ara, A., Usmani, J.A. (2015): Lead toxicity: A review. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 8, 55-64.

Ahn, J., Park, M.Y., Kang, M.Y., Shin, I.S., An, S., Kim, H.R. (2020): Occupational Lead Exposure and Brain Tumors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17:3975.

Steenland, K., Barry, V., Anttila, A., Sallmen, M., Mueller, W., Ritchie, P., McElvenny, M.D., Straif, K. (2019): Cancer incidence among workers with blood lead measurements in two countries. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 76: 603-610.

Matović, V., Buha, A., Bulat, Z., Dukić-Ćosić, D. (2011): Cadmium toxicity revisited: focus on oxidative stress induction and interactions with zinc and magnesium. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 62(1):65-76.

Patra, R.C., Rautray, A.K., Swarup, D. (2011): Oxidative stress in lead and cadmium toxicity and its amelioration. Veterinary Medicine International 457327.

Cuypers, A., Plusquin, M., Remans, T., et al. (2010) : Cadmium stress : an oxidative challenge. Biometals 23(5) : 927-940.

Wang, B., Li, Y., Shao, C., Tan, Y., Cai, L. (2012): Cadmium and its epigenetic effects. Current Medicinal Chemistry 19(16):2611-2620.

Martinez-Zamudio, R., Ha, H.C. (2011): Environmental epigenetics in metal exposure. Epigenetics 6(7) : 820-827.

Luparello, C., Sirchia, R., Longo, A. (2011): Cadmium as a transcriptional modulator in human cells. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 41(1):75-82.

Thévenod, F. (2010): Catch me if you can! Novel aspects of cadmium transport in mammalian cells. Biometals 23(5) :857-875.

Wan, L., Zhang, H. (2012): Cadmium toxicity: effects on cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking and cell wall construction. Plant Signalling and behavior 7(3):345-348.

Van Kerkhove, E., Pennemans, V., Swennen, Q. (2010): Cadmium and transport of ions and substances across cell membranes and epithelia. Biometals 23(5):823-855.

Vesey, D.A. (2010): Transport pathways for cadmium in the intestine and kidney proximal tubule: focus on the interaction with essential metals. Toxicology Letters 198(1):13-19.

Schauder, A., Avital, A., Malik, Z. (2010): Regulation and gene expression of heme synthesis under heavy metal exposure--review. Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology, and Oncology 29(2):137-158.

Cannino, G., Ferruggia, E., Luparello, C., Rinaldi, A.M. (2009): Cadmium and mitochondria. Mitochondrion 9(6):377-384.

Zafarzadeh, A., Bonyadi, Z., Feyzi, K. (2020): Health risk assessment related to cadmium in dairy products in Gorgan, Iran. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 1-9.

Aquino, N.B., Sevigny, M.B., Sabangan, J., Louie, M.C. (2012): The role of cadmium and nickel in estrogen receptor signaling and breast cancer: metalloestrogens or not?. Journal of environmental science and health. Part C, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews 30(3):189-224.

Filippini, T., Torres, D., Lopes, C., et al. (2020). Cadmium exposure and risk of breast cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Environment International 142:105879.

Rapisarda, V., Miozzi, E., Loreto, C., et al. (2018) : Cadmium exposure and prostate cancer : insights, mechanisms and perspectives. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (Ed) 23(9):1687-1700.

Djordjevic, V.R., Wallace, D.R., Schweitzer, A., et al. (2019) : Environmental cadmium exposure and pancreatic cancer: Evidence from case control, animal and in vitro studies. Environment International 128:353-361.

Chen, C., Xun, P., Nishijo, M., He, K. (2016): Cadmium exposure and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies among general and occupational populations. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 26(5):437-444.

Querol, X., Viana, M., Alastuey, A., Amato, F., Moreno, T., Castillo, S. et al. (2007): Source origin of trace elements in PM from regional background, urban and industrial sites of Spain. Atmospheric Environment 41(34): 7219-7231.

Leghouchi, E., Laib, E., Guerbet, M. (2009): Evaluation of chromium contamination in water, sediment and vegetation caused by the tannery of Jijel (Algeria): a case study. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 153(1-4):111-117.

Amodio, M., Andriani, E., Dambruoso, P.R., de Gennaro, G., Di Gilio, A., Intini, M., Palmisani, J., Tutino, M. (2013): A monitoring strategy to assess the fugitive emission from a steel plant. Atmospheric Environment 79: 455-461.

Amrane, C., Bouhidel, K.E. (2019): Analysis and speciation of heavy metals in the water, sediments, and drinking water plant sludge of a deep and sulfate-rich Algerian reservoir. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191(2):73.

Mehouel, F., Bouayad, L., Hammoudi, A.H., Ayadi, O., Regad, F. (2019): Evaluation of the heavy metals (mercury, lead, and cadmium) contamination of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) fished in three Algerian coasts. Veterinary World 12(1):7-11.

DPAT (Direction de programmation et de suivi de budget) Jijel. (2021).

DSASI (Direction des statistiques agricoles et des systèmes d’information) Jijel. (2020).

Quemerais, B., COSSA, D. (1997) : Procedures for sampling and analysis of mercury in natural water. Environment Canada-Quebec region, Environmental Conservation, St. Lawrence Centre, Scientific and Technical Report, ST-31E, pp. 34.

J.E.C.F.A. (2003): (Summary and Conclusions of the 61st Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). JECFA/61/Sc Rome, Italy.

US EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)(2014):Regional Screening Level (RSL) Summary Table May.

U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (2008): Child-specific exposure factors handbook. EPA/600/R-06/096F. Washington, DC: National Center 526 for Environmental Assessment Office of Research and Development.

Basaran, B. (2022): Comparison of heavy metal levels and health risk assessment of different bread types marketed in Turkey, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 108:104443.

US EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (2022): Guidelines for the health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. Federal Register 51: 34014:1986.

Basaran, B., Anlar, P., Oral, Z. F. Y., Polat, Z., & Kaban, G. (2022): Risk assessment of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) exposure from bread consumption: Turkey. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 107: 104409.

FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (2012): Joint FAO/WHO food standards program: Codex committee on contaminants in foods (Editorial amendments to the general standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed), sixth session, Maastricht, Netherlands, CX/CF 12/6/11.

Commission Codex Alimentarius (2014): FAO/WHO Joint Food Standards Programme, Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods, Eighth Session The Hague, The Netherlands, (Prepared by Japan and the Netherlands).

Codex Alimentarius Commission (1999): Discussion paper on maximum level for Pb in milk and secondary milk products. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme, twenty-third session. The Rome, the Italy.

IDF (IDF Standard (87-1979) : Determination of the Dispersibility and Wettability of Instant Dried Milk.

Norouzirad, R., González-Montaña, J.R., Martínez-Pastor, F., Hosseini, H., Shahrouzian, A., Khabazkhoob, M., Malayeri, F.A., Bandani, H.M., Paknejad, M., Foroughi-nia, B. (2018): Lead and cadmium levels in raw bovine milk and dietary risk assessment in areas near petroleum extraction industries. Science of the Total Environment 635:308-314.

El Sayed, E. M., Hamed, A.M., Badran, S.M., Mostafa, A. A. (2011): A survey of selected essential and heavy metals in milk from different regions of Egypt using ICP-AES. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B 4(4):294- 298.

Garba, S., Abdullahi, S., Abdullahi, M. (2018): Heavy Metal content of cow’s milk from Maiduguri Metropolis and its environs, Borno state Nigeria. American journal of Engineering Research 7:63-73.

Meshref, A.M., Moselhy, W.A., Hassan, N.E.H.Y. (2014): Heavy metals and trace elements levels in milk and milk products. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 8(4):381-388.

Homayonibezi, N., Dobaradaran, S., Arfaeinia, H., et al. (2021): Toxic heavy metals and nutrient concentration in the milk of goat herds in two Iranian industrial and non-industrial zones. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28(12) :14882-14892.

Sellami, S., Zeghouan, O., Lassaad, M. et al. (2020) : Determination of lead concentrations in the soils of Setif City, Eastern Algeria. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 13: 929.

Tunegova, M., Toman, R., Tancin, V. (2016) : Hevy metals environmental contaminants and their occurrence in different types of milk. Slovak Journal of Animal Science 49 (3):122-131.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2005): Enhancing Participation in Codex Activities: An FAO/WHO Training Package. Food and Agriculture Organization, pp. 187.

Shahbazi, Y., Ahmadi. F., Fakhari, F. (2016): Voltammetric determination of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Se in milk and dairy products collected from Iran: An emphasis on permissible limits and risk assessment of exposure to heavy metals. Food Chemistry 192:1060-1067.

Imam, M.M., Muhammad, Z., Zakari, Z. (2017): Determination of some heavy metals in milk of cow grazing at selected areas, of Kaduna Metropolis. Computer Science vs. Software Engineering 7: (7).

Iqbal, H., Ishfaq, M., Abbas, M.N., Wahab, A., Qayum, M., Mehsud, S. (2016): Pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals toxicity assessments in evaluating unpasteurized raw milk quality through biochemical tests collected from dairy cows. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 6(11):868-872.

Sola-Larranaga, C., Navarro-Blasco, I. (2009): Chemometric analysis of minerals and trace elements in raw cow milk from the community of Navarra, Spain. Food Chemistry 112: 189-196.

Bilandzic, M., Dokic, M., Sedak, M., Solomun, B., Varenina, I., Knežević, Z., Benić, M. (2011): Trace element levels in raw milk from northern and southern regions of Croatia. Food Chemistry 127: 63-66.

Pilarezyk, R., Wojcik, J., Czerniak, P., Sablik, P., Pilarezyk, B., Tomza-Marciniak, A. (2013): Concentrations of toxic heavy metals and trace elements in raw milk of Simmental and Holstein-Friesian cows from organic farm. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 185:8383-8392.

Khan, N., Jeong, I.S., Hwang, I.M., Kim, J.S., Choi, S.H., Nho, E.Y., Choi, J.Y., Park, K.S., Kim, K.S. (2014): Analysis of minor and trace elements in milk and yogurts by inductivel coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Food Chemistry147: 220-224.

Raghu, V. (2015): Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187: 4080.

Bakircioglu, D., Topraksever, N., Yurtsever, S., Kizildere, M., Kurtulus, Y.B. (2018): Investigation of macro, micro and toxic element concentrations of milk and fermented milks products by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, to improve food safety in Turkey. Microchemical Journal 136:133-138.

Ahmad, I., Zaman, A., Samad, N., Ayaz, M.M., Rukh, S., Akbar, A. (2017): Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery Detection of Heavy Metals in Milk of Camel, Cattle, Buffalo and Goat from Various Areas of Khyber- Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques 8:367.

Yu, M., Liu, Y., Achal, V., Fu, Q., Li, L. (2015) : Health Risk Assessment of Al and Heavy Metals in Milk Products for Different Age Groups in China. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 24(6): 2707-2714.

Giri, A., Bharti, V.K., Kalia, S., Kumar, B., Chaurasia, O.P. (2021): Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Through Cow Milk Consumption in Trans-Himalayan High-Altitude Region. Biological Trace Element Research1 99(12):4572-4581.

Castro Gonzalez, N.P., Moreno-Rojas, R., Calderón Sánchez, F., Moreno Ortega, A., Juarez Meneses, M. (2017): Assessment risk to children's health due to consumption of cow's milk in polluted areas in Puebla and Tlaxcala, Mexico. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance 10(3):200-207.

Miclean, M., Cadar, O., Levei, E.A., Roman, R., Ozunu, A., Levei, L. (2019): Metal (Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn) Transfer along Food Chain and Health Risk Assessment through Raw Milk Consumption from Free-Range Cows. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(21):4064.

Mohammadi, A.A., Zarei, A., Majidi, S. et al. (2019): Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking water of Khorramabad, Iran. MethodsX 6:1642-1651.




How to Cite

Balli, N., Lebsir, D., Habila, S., Boutenoun, H., Boussouf, L., Bouchekhou, N., & Belkouicem, S. I. (2023). HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN GOAT’S MILK FOR ADULTS GROUP IN JIJEL PROVINCE (ALGERIA). Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 17(1), 93–110. Retrieved from




Most read articles by the same author(s)