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Forced swimming stress, melatonin, spleen, oxidative stress, MT1 & MT2 receptors


Stress is an external or internal stimulus that interferes with the normal physiology and homeostatic status of an individual. Acute stress is the short-term exposure to stress and chronic stress involves prolonged exposure to stress. Forced swimming stress is a widely accepted model to study physiological stress in laboratory animals. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and modulator of the immune system. Melatonin modulates physiological activities through its high-affinity MT1 and MT2 receptors and directly through scavenging free radicals. The present study evaluated the involvement of melatonin in the attenuation of forced swimming stressed induced oxidative stress, splenocyte proliferation, intracellular ROS generation, and phagocytic index of macrophages. Acute and chronic swimming stress caused an increase in lipid peroxidation and reduced the antioxidant enzyme (SOD and catalase) activity in the spleen of mice. Melatonin supplementation to both chronic and acute stressed groups decreased lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity (SOD and catalase) in the spleen of mice.  Melatonin attenuated the suppression of phagocytic activity, and splenocyte proliferation caused by both acute and chronic swim stress. Swim stress caused increased MT1 and MT2 receptor expression in the spleen of mice. Increased expression of melatonin receptors might be responsible for melatonin-mediated induction of antioxidant enzyme activity during stressed conditions in mice. Therefore, the present study may suggest that melatonin attenuates the swim-stressed induced oxidative stress, and suppression of immune functions through modulation of MT1 and MT2 receptors.


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How to Cite

Shiv Shankar Singh, Subhrata Sarma, Kashyap, A., & Chakrabarti, A. (2024). MELATONIN PROTECTS AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN SPLEEN AND DETERIORATION OF IMMUNE FUNCTION IN FORCED SWIM-STRESSED LABORATORY MICE. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 18(1), 78–93. Retrieved from