Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-05-29T15:20:44+03:00 Prof. Dr. Mehmet KARATAS, Editor in Chief, JABS, Necmettin Erbakan University, Department of Biotechnology, Meram, Konya/TURKEY Open Journal Systems <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>Journal of Applied Biological sciences (JABS)&nbsp; is a peer-reviewed, open access journal, dedicated to publication of original research, review articles, short communications on applied researches in following fields of biology; Physiology and&nbsp;Pharmacology,&nbsp;Cell biology, Developmental biology, Structural biology, Microbiology, Ecology, Molecular biology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Food Science, Medicinal Plants, Ethnobotany, Environmental biology, Marine biology, Viorology, Veterinary Science, Medical Biology, Bioinformatics, Biophysics, Evolutionary biology, Animal Science, Plant Science, Plant pathology, Plant physiology, Plant breeding,&nbsp;Nematology, Agriculture Science, Agronomy, Soil Science and Horticulture.</p> <p><strong>Plagiarism Policy</strong></p> <p>Authors should ensure the originality of their contents, while preparing a manuscript draft. In case the authors have used the work and/or words of others this must be appropriately cited or quoted. All the articles submitted to JABS shall be screened for plagiarism using&nbsp;<strong>iThenticate</strong>&nbsp;(online plagiarism detection software). In case, plagiarism is detected during review/editorial process, such manuscript(s) will be rejected immediately. If the plagiarism is proven after publication, such manuscript(s) will be retracted from the journal and appropriate announcement will be placed in this regards. We can also consider appropriate action against authors depending upon the seriousness of the case. It includes;</p> <ol> <li class="show">Debarring the authors from publication in future.</li> <li class="show">We can bring such instants in notice of author's funding agencies, author's institutes (where they works) and to the original authors whose work has been&nbsp;plagiarized.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;JABS welcomes&nbsp;article&nbsp;submissions&nbsp;and&nbsp;<strong>does not charge any article submission or processing&nbsp;charges</strong>.</p> </div> MOLECULAR CLONING, DUAL EXPRESSION, AND COMPLEX ISOLATION OF TOXA AND TOXB TOXINS CAUSING ACUTE HEPATOPANCREATIC NECROSIS DISEASE (AHPND) IN SHRIMP 2021-12-17T21:34:26+03:00 Khai-Hoan Nguyen-Phuoc Lan-Vy Pham Thuoc Linh Tran Hieu Tran-Van <p>Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) is a dangerous disease in shrimp farming, which has a mortality rate of up to 100 percent. AHPND is caused by two toxins, ToxA and ToxB, which are expressed from pVA1 plasmid in <em>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</em>. Currently, the pathogenic mechanism of AHPND has not been clearly elucidated, thus drugs development to treat AHPND still faces many difficulties. Individually expressing ToxA and ToxB for experiments may be problematic. Therefore, imitating the structure of pVA1 plasmid to naturally generate ToxA and ToxB in complex form is an ideal approach. In this present study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid pACYACDuet-<em>toxA-toxB</em> encoding for both ToxA and ToxB proteins for the first time. Then, the toxins were dual expressed and evaluated by SDS-PAGE, Western blot, and pull-down assay. As expected, ToxA and ToxB were simultaneously expressed in soluble fraction at 1mM IPTG, and 37°C condition. ToxA and ToxB complex was also collected by pull-down assay using ToxB-antibody conjugated magnetic beads. The data laid a groundwork for further researches on the pathogenicity of AHPND.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences ANALYSIS OF A HYPOTHETICAL PROTEIN FROM VIBRIO HARVEYI IDENTIFIED POSSIBLE CONNECTION WITH BIOPOLYMER METABOLISM: AN IN-SILICO APPROACH 2022-01-07T15:13:54+03:00 Sk Injamamul Islam Moslema Jahan Mou <p>Because of our limited understanding of the mechanisms governing <em>Vibrio</em> species persistence and spread in the face of global warming, finding ways to control the increasing spread of pathogenic vibrios is challenging. To determine whether the persistence of <em>Vibrio harveyi</em> is associated with physiological and gene expression patterns, it is important to do research on several proteins in its genome which are classified as hypothetical proteins (HPs). As a result, the current work sought to elucidate the roles of a HP found in the genome of <em>V.harveyi</em>. To determine the structure, function and homologous model of this protein, quality bioinformatics methods were used to predict and confirm the function as well as secondary and tertiary structure. Additionally, the active site and interacting proteins were examined using CASTp and the STRING server. An important biological activity of the HP is that it contains single functional domains that may be act as DNA binding site. Further, protein-protein interactions within selected HP revealed several functional partners that are essential for bacterial survival with different functional activity. In addition, molecular docking and simulation results showed stable bonding between HP and ExbD/TolR family protein which might be of significant relevance to future bacterial genetics research.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences PROFILING THE CAROTENOIDS OF MICROALGA (Scenedesmus obliquus) EXTRACT BY HPLC AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY 2021-12-28T16:18:43+03:00 Yasar Aluc Osman Kok Ilhami Tuzun <p>The extracts of the algae species <em>Scenedesmus</em> <em>obliquus </em>isolated from Kapulukaya Reservoir (Kırıkkale, Turkey) were analyzed to determine the composition, content and antioxidant properties of carotenoids. The HPLC analysis was applied to identify carotenoids species and to determine their contents. Methanol–acetonitrile–water (84:14:2, v/v/v) and methylene chloride (100%) used in the gradient solvent system resulted in an acceptable separation. Of the 22 resolution peaks assigned to carotenoids either tentatively or positively, the first eight were identified to be epoxy containing while the remaining ones as main carotenoids namely, all-<em>trans</em> forms of lutein, β-carotene, α carotene, zeaxanthin, 13-or 13’-<em>cis</em>-lutein, 9-or 9’-<em>cis</em>-lutein, <em>cis</em>-lutein, 13-or 13’-<em>cis</em>- β-Carotene, 9-or 9’-<em>cis</em>-β-Carotene, 9-or 9’-<em>cis</em>- α-carotene and <em>cis</em>-neoxanthin. Quantitatively, <em>S. obliquus</em> was predominated by all-<em>trans</em> isomers of lutein and β-carotene, being 83.74 % (2.52 mg g<sup>-1</sup>) in total carotenoids (TC). Antioxidant capacity assays of DPPH and FRAP showed considerably low effects of <em>S. obliquus</em> extracts compared to standards. This was attributed to the lesser existence of <em>cis</em> isomers within derivatives. Multiple regression was utilised to partition the antioxidant effect of both assays and, revealed an estimation of FRAP dominating over DPPH. A need was arisen on the exploration of isomerisation mechanisms of the carotenoids compounds in order to better evaluate the species for a probable potential of further practical applications.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences SCREENING OF PHYTOCHEMICAL, EVALUATION OF PHENOLIC CONTENT, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXYDANT ACTIVITIES OF EPHEDRA ALATA FROM THE ALGERIAN SAHARA 2022-01-31T00:29:43+03:00 Abdelhadi abdelhadi boussena Fouad Bahri Ahmed Bouyahyaoui Mohamed Kouidri Malika Meziane <p><em>Ephedra alata </em>is a medicinal plant that has a long history of usage in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases such as bronchial asthma, digestive system disorders and cancer. The present study aimed to elucidate the chemical constituents of the crude methanolic and hydro-methanolic extracts of <em>Ephedra alata</em> aerial part and to assess their antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, the percentage yield of crude methanolic and hydro-methanolic extracts was 12.92% and 15.01% respectively. Phytochemical screening investigations using standard method showed that <em>E. alata</em> aerial part extracts was rich in flavonoids, reducing sugars, phenols and tannins and quantitative analysis using spectrophotometric assay revealed that the methanolic extract had the highest phenols and flavonoids contents (214.92 mg AGE/g extract and 30.74 mg CE/g extract, respectively). The results of the antibacterial activity by the agar well diffusion and microdilution assays showed that the both extracts displayed antibacterial effect, especially on gram positive strains with <em>S. aureus </em>being the most sensitive. Antioxidant activity was examined by the DPPH radical scavenging method. The methanolic extract has a significant inhibitory activity (IC<sub>50</sub>= 226.58 μg/mL). These findings revealed that <em>E. alata</em> extracts could be a natural source of antioxidants and antibacterials that can prevent several diseases.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND SYNERGISTIC EFFECT BETWEEN ANTIBIOTICS AND THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF ARTEMISIA CAMPESTRIS L. 2021-11-25T10:51:24+03:00 Bakhtia Mammeri Fouad Bahri Mohamed Kouidri Bouharaoua Boudani Fatiha Arioui <p>This present study aimed to elucidate the chemical composition of essential oil (EO) which was obtained from the leaves of <em>Artemisia campestris</em> (Asteraceae) collected in Djelfa region (Algeria). The <em>in-vitro</em> antibacterial activity against six (06) bacterial strains were evaluated, the EO was used alone and associated with antibiotics to assess their synergistic effect. The <em>in-vivo</em> acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated. In this work thirty-three (33) compounds accounting for 100% of total oil were identified by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential of <em>A. campestris</em>. Camphor (41.95%), Chrysanthenone (13.95%), and 1,8-Cineole (13.31%) are found to be the major compounds. From the results of the antibacterial activity using disc diffusion method revealed inhibition zones ranging from 18.33 ±0.57 to 24.33± 0.57mm. Gram-negative was more sensitive to EO compared to Gram-positive bacteria. The combined application of EO of the studied specie with standard antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some bacteria. At the highest tested dose (5000 mg/kg p.o.) the EO of <em>A. campestris</em> did not show signs of acute toxicity. EO of <em>A. campestris</em> reduced significantly the paw edema induced by carrageenan in mice at 27.36%, 39.62%, and 56.60% (after 6 hours) at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 (mg/kg) respectively.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences INVESTIGATION OF SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF GELDANAMYCIN AND CUCURBITACIN ON HUMAN COLON CANCER 2021-12-01T11:29:04+03:00 Mustafa Cellat Ares Alizade Halil Mahir Kaplan Gülşah Evyapan Memet Güvenç <p>Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers observed in men and women in the world, today in many countries after cardiovascular diseases; it is second leading cause of death. In this the study we aimed to investigate the effects of use of Cucurbitacin I and together with Geldanamycin (GA) which have apoptotic and anti-proliferativeeffects on HT29. Cells were treated with GA, CU and GA+CU. Effect of GA, CU on cell viabilitywere demonstrated by MTT assay and activities of bax, caspase-3, bcl-2, GRP78, wee1, AIF and GAAD153 were performedwith ELISA method after 48 hour treatment. Our study showed that the combined use of GA and CU significantly reduced cell viability of colon cells. Also, the same dose of GA and CU used together increased the expression of proapoptotic proteins and decreased anti-apoptotic proteins more than their effects alone. As aconclusion, our study showed that GA and CU synergistically induce apoptosis on humancolon cancer.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COMPONENTS, ANTI-OXIDANT PROPERTIES, AND LETHAL TOXICITY OF ALKALOIDS EXTRACTED FROM ESPAND (Peganum harmala) 2022-03-04T11:11:26+03:00 Fahimi Saeedeh Shahrbanoo Oryan Ramesh Ahmadi Akram Eidi <p><em>Peganum harmala</em> L. is a multipurpose medicinal plant frequently used for psychoactive recreational purposes. Harmaline, Harmine, Harmalol, Harmol, and Tetrahydroharmine were determined and quantified as the main b-carboline alkaloids in its extracts. Seeds and roots consisted of the greatest levels of alkaloids, while stems and leaves included low levels of alkaloids. This study aimed to investigate the chemical components, anti-oxidant properties, and lethal toxicity of alkaloids extracted from <em>P. harmala. </em>Accordingly, this plant was collected from Zahedan province (Iran) in spring, and methanolic extract of its seed and leaf was extracted by the Soxhlet method. Then, phytochemical analyses included identifying flavonoids and phenolic compounds, anti-oxidant test, FT-IR analysis, and HPLC analysis. Also, the test was conducted after orally administrating the three doses of the methanolic extract and Harmine to 54 male Wistar rats in three groups (n=6 per group). The results show that, although the anti-oxidant properties of methanolic extract of leaves are higher (because of the existence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds) than seeds, there is a higher amount of β-Carboline in seeds of the plant. The results showed that Harmine was toxic at a much lower dose than the seed extract, and the seed extract can be toxic in low doses than leaf extract.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SILDENAFIL ON HUMAN AORTIC SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS 2021-09-11T23:11:08+03:00 Harun Alp Hidayet Tutun Ergin Şingirik Halil Mahir Kaplan Muhammet Mükerrem Kaya Levent Altıntaş <p>Erectile dysfunction is defined as the inability to gain and/or maintain a penile erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE<sub>5</sub>) inhibitor used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of sildenafil (0.8% in cell media) on the mechanism of human aortic smooth muscle contraction. Human smooth muscle cells treated with sildenafil for 1 and 4 days. These cells were then homogenized, and enzymes and proteins responsible for the mechanism of intracellular contraction were analysed. Rho-kinase (ROCK) activity, RhoA, ROCK II, CPI-17α, PDE<sub>5a</sub>, and PLC levels were evaluated by using ELISA. In this study, it was observed that sildenafil increased RhoA, PDE<sub>5a</sub> and CPI-17α levels, and decreased ROCK enzyme activity.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences BINDING OF ppGpp AND cAMP TO TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATOR PROTEIN BolA 2021-12-06T09:56:31+03:00 Taner Duysak <p><em>E. coli </em>BolA is a DNA-binding transcription factor that responds to various stresses during the stationary phase by regulating the transcription of stringent response-related genes. It also protects bacteria from stressful environments by changing the cell wall morphology and inducing biofilm formation. The present study examined the physical interaction between ppGpp and cAMP to BolA by fluorescence spectroscopy. Recombinant BolA from <em>E. coli</em> was cloned, overexpressed, and purified to purity. BolA shows an intrinsic fluorescence light at 339 nm when excited at 280 nm, and the maximum intensity decreases in the presence of cAMP and ppGpp. The dissociation constant for ppGpp and cAMP was determined to be 164 ± 20 and 165 ± 36 µM, respectively. The experimental evaluation suggests ppGpp competes with cAMP for the ligand-binding pocket of BolA. Under stringent conditions, ppGpp bind to BolA with a strong affinity to control gene regulation and biofilm formation. However, when the cell goes back to normal environmental conditions, cAMP occupies the binding site to repress the activity of BolA. This study showed for the first time that ppGpp and cAMP bind to BolA with strong affinity.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences A NOVEL MUTATION IN PPP2CA GENE AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH FAT TAIL STORAGE AND CARCASS TRAITS IN SHEEP 2021-10-26T09:08:16+03:00 Masoomeh Zare Mostafa Sadeghi Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak Abbas Safari Misagh Moridi Mahdi Nosratjou <p>In the livestock industry, a large, fat tail becomes advantageous in sheep, and therefore, a reduction in the size of the fat tail is often beneficial. Because the difference between Iranian thin and fat tail breeds in fat-related genes are in the tail. So the aim of this study aimed to find candidate genes related to fat deposition between the Iranian thin and fat tail breeds located on chromosome 5 using bioinformatics and molecular techniques. Firstly, we investigated the region placed on chromosome 5 by Genomic Sequence Databases, including Pre Ensemble and UCSC Genome Browser. The local and global alignment of sequences for other species showed a high similarity with a region of chromosome 7 in cattle (up to 95%) is identified as an orthologous region. Additionally, the <em>PPP2CA </em>gene on bovine chromosome 7 was orthologous. Then, we investigated the relationship between the polymorphism of the <em>PPP2CA</em> gene with carcass, growth, and fat tail traits in Lori-Bakhtiari (165 heads) and Zel (140 heads) breeds using PCR-SSCP technique. These data indicated two different banding patterns (genotypes) and two mutations (synonymous and Indel). The mutations interchangeable lead to the change of nucleotide T to C, then the codon was the switch from TCT to TCC both encode serine. The second mutation was the deletion of the nucleotide T at position 2 of the second pattern, which changed the open reading frame and created the end codon in this region, changing protein function. Finally, the association between genotypes and traits of weaning weight and fat tail weight in Lori-Bakhtiari and cholesterol in Zel breeds was significant (p &lt;0.05). Also, genotypes of the exon1 position in the <em>PPP2CA</em> gene were associated with carcass traits (fat percentage of carcass and triglyceride traits) in the Zel Slaughter breed (p &lt;0.05). The results showed that one of the most distinctive traits was tail fatness and visceral organs of the body in breeds considered. This area of the <em>PPP2CA </em>gene has a significant association with mentioned traits, and can implemented in breeding programs.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences EFFECT OF CAROB GALACTOMANNANS ON STARTER CULTURES VIABILITY AND ON TEXTURAL PROPERTIES OF REFRIGERATED NON-FAT YOGHURT 2022-03-07T00:14:19+03:00 Meryem Sadoud Hasnia Ziar Ali Riazi <p>Low-fat and non-fat yoghurts have some rheological changes particularly in syneresis and viscosity. Hydrocolloids such as galactomannans (locust bean gum: LBG) can act as fat replacers and can improve the rheological properties of low and non-fat yoghurts. The present study investigates the effect of carob galactomannans on both the viability of starter cultures and textural properties of non-fat yoghurt during cold storage period (4 °C). Carob galactomannans were extracted from carob seeds. Yoghurt was made from skimmed milk powder with the addition of starter culture and locust bean gum at different concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1% W/V). The yoghurt was stored for 28 days at 4°C. Changes in starter microorganisms’ viability, pH, viscosity and syneresis were measured after 24h of manufacturing than every 7 days. Results showed that starter culture microorganisms (<em>Streptococcus thermophilus</em> and <em>Lactobacilus bulgaricus</em>) showed better (P&lt;0.05) retention of viability in yoghurt supplemented with galactomannans (0.05 and 0.1%) in comparison with control. LBG did not showed a significant (P&lt;0.05) effect on pH changes during refrigerated storage of yoghurt. However its hydrocolloid improved (P&lt;0.05) the viscosity and prevented the defect of syneresis during storage at 4°C. Additionally, panelists preferred yoghurt sample with 0.05% LBG. This suggests that these polysaccharides can be used as fat replacers to reduce the problems associated with elimination of fat in fermented dairy products.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences COMPARISON OF THE ANTI-CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF SOME PROBIOTIC BACTERIA AND THEIR POSTBIOTICS ON COLORECTAL CANCER CELLS 2022-01-14T14:21:28+03:00 Serap Nigdelioglu Dolanbay Belma Aslim <p>The third most widespread cancer and the second leading reason for cancer-associated death is colorectal cancer (CRC). Natural agents such as probiotics and postbiotics, that offer anti-carcinogenic effects for CRC prevention, have become an important focus in recent years. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the anti-proliferative effects related to anti-genotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of viable probiotics with their exopolysaccharides (EPSs), which is one of their postbiotics. For this purpose, the strains' ability to inhibit the proliferation of HT-29 cells were determined with the WST-1 assay kit, their genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects with the Comet assay and their immunomodulatory effects with IL-8 and IL-10 ELISA kits. According to our results, both viable probiotics and lyophilized EPSs (L-EPSs) were effective in all studies, but the best anti-proliferative (51% cell death), anti-genotoxic (48% inhibition) and immunomodulatory (for IL-8: 46% suppression and for IL-10: 74% increase) (*<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) effect was obtained from viable probiotics (<em>Levilactobacillus brevis</em> LB63). Additionally, in the present study found that these effects of L-EPSs were close to viable probiotics. Therefore, it has been shown that postbiotics can be used as alternatively to viable probiotics, because of the properties such as reliable and no side effects of their, thus it may be a useful alternative for cancer. According to these results, new agents such as probiotic-based postbiotics will be introduced to the pharmaceutical and food industry as well as probiotic bacteria that are protective and/or therapeutic against cancer.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences CREATION OF FUNCTIONAL SOLID FOOD MODEL ENRICHED WITH CALAMINTHA NEPETA (L.) SAVI.: KINETIC GAIN OF PHENOLICS COMPOUND 2022-01-19T22:27:27+03:00 Abdelaziz Merouane Sara Fellag Abdallah Noui <p>The current research looks to benefit from <em>Calamintha nepeta</em> (L.) Savi. in food enrichment by using osmotic dehydratation (OD) for supplementing a solid foodstuff model. The kinetic gain of food model in terms of individual phenolics using HPLC-DAD, total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC) as well as antioxidant properties were examined at different impregnation times. The food model gained the same phenolics profile of osmotic solution dominated by acacetin and Cryptochlorogenic acid. The enrichment process created a rich osmo-dehydrated food in TPC and TFC reaching the bioactive features of most of rich-in-phenolics human foods. The food model exhibited a potent antioxidant activity, even at a short impregnation time (4h), attaining 92.07±3.63% as β-carotene bleaching potency and 47.64±0.59% (at 10 mg/mL) as DPPH scavenging capacity. The kinetic gain of individual phenolics compounds depends on their concentration. This investigation supports valorization of <em>Calamintha nepeta</em> for the production of functional foods.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences DIVERSITY, SEASONAL CHANGES AND FLORAL CHOICES OF SPECIES OF THE APIDAE FAMILY (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) IN TIZI-OUZOU REGION (ALGERIA) 2021-11-16T18:06:44+03:00 Yamina Korichi Karima Benoufella-Kitous Samia Ouarab Malika Aouar-Sadli Hassina Ikhlef <p>Bees have a great economic and environmental importance; they play an important role in terrestrial ecosystems as pollinators. This field survey was carried out on the bee fauna and its abundance in the region of Tizi-Ouzou (northern Algeria) from January to August over a period of three years, from 2012 to 2014. This study focused on the family <em>Apidae</em> (<em>Hymenoptera, Apoidea</em>) in four localities with different altitudes and with a great plant diversity, little is known about this family in the Tizi-Ouzou region. A total of 612 specimens of solitary harvesting bees (no cleptoparasites) including 34 species and subspecies belonging to six genera were collected in the study area using various sampling techniques. Represented by 13 species, <em>Eucera</em> was the dominant genus. It was followed by <em>Anthophora</em> and <em>Ceratina</em> with seven species each. The most abundant species were <em>Ceratina cucurbitina, </em>and <em>Eucera notata</em>. Moreover, we report two species and one subspecies as endemic for North Africa: <em>Eucera spatulata, Eucera decolorata, Xylocopa iris cupripennis</em>. The present study provides base data for studies of the insect biodiversity of Tizi-Ouzou area. These findings constitute a first step towards building regional networks to address issues regarding the understanding and management of our ecosystems.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences EFFECTS OF MEDIUM SUPPLEMENTS ON VIABILITY AND FUNCTIONALITY IN LONG-TERM CULTURED ISLET CELLS 2022-02-16T10:23:01+03:00 Gulbahar Boyuk Ayse Arzu Yigit <p>It is highly important to keep islet cells alive and functional before transplantation. This study aims to maintain the viability and functionality of islets with different supplements and provide longer incubation. Isolated islets were cultured with RPMI1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or 1% insulin-transferrin-sodium selenite (ITS) premix or 0.3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) up to 120h. Islets were evaluated in terms of viability, functionality and morphologically. Islet viability of the BSA group decreased significantly in 72, 96, and 120 h (P &lt; 0.05) compared to FBS and ITS groups. While insulin secretion of the BSA group was lower than the others at only 48 and 72 h, the stimulation index was at rational reasonable for transplantation in all groups at 48h and only in the FBS and ITS groups at 72 h. However, islet cells adhere to each other in the FBS group after 48h. Moreover, total oxidant status was the highest and total antioxidant status was the lowest in the BSA group at 120 h. It was concluded that ITS premix could be preferred to FBS and BSA in long-term islet cultures.</p> 2022-05-29T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences