Journal of Applied Biological Sciences <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>Journal of Applied Biological sciences (JABS)&nbsp; is a peer-reviewed, open access journal, dedicated to publication of original research, review articles, short communications on applied researches in following fields of biology; Physiology and&nbsp;Pharmacology,&nbsp;Cell biology, Developmental biology, Structural biology, Microbiology, Ecology, Molecular biology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Food Science, Medicinal Plants, Ethnobotany, Environmental biology, Marine biology, Viorology, Veterinary Science, Medical Biology, Bioinformatics, Biophysics, Evolutionary biology, Animal Science, Plant Science, Plant pathology, Plant physiology, Plant breeding,&nbsp;Nematology, Agriculture Science, Agronomy, Soil Science and Horticulture.</p> <p><strong>Plagiarism Policy</strong></p> <p>Authors should ensure the originality of their contents, while preparing a manuscript draft. In case the authors have used the work and/or words of others this must be appropriately cited or quoted. All the articles submitted to JABS shall be screened for plagiarism using&nbsp;<strong>iThenticate</strong>&nbsp;(online plagiarism detection software). In case, plagiarism is detected during review/editorial process, such manuscript(s) will be rejected immediately. If the plagiarism is proven after publication, such manuscript(s) will be retracted from the journal and appropriate announcement will be placed in this regards. We can also consider appropriate action against authors depending upon the seriousness of the case. It includes;</p> <ol> <li class="show">Debarring the authors from publication in future.</li> <li class="show">We can bring such instants in notice of author's funding agencies, author's institutes (where they works) and to the original authors whose work has been&nbsp;plagiarized.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;JABS welcomes&nbsp;article&nbsp;submissions&nbsp;and&nbsp;<strong>does not charge any article submission or processing&nbsp;charges</strong>.</p> </div> ANATOLIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES en-US Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2146-0108 ANTINEOPLASTIC EFFICACY OF SMILAX WIGHTII A.DC. (SMILACACEAE) AND ITS STEROIDAL SAPOGENINS: IN VITRO TO IN SILICO APPROACHES <p><strong>. </strong>Competency of plant metabolites and derivatives as antineoplastic drugs has been validated by modern medicine and the screening of flora for anticancer agents is crucial in drug discovery. <em>Smilax wightii </em>A.DC. (Smilacaceae) is an ethnomedicinal plant endemic to Western Ghats of India. The methanolic extract of various plant parts were subjected to investigation of antiproliferative potential. Dalton’s lymphoma Ascites (DLA), Ehrlich-Lettre ascites carcinoma (EAC), rat spleen, mouse fibroblast (L929) and human lung cancer (A549) cell lines were employed in the analysis. Stem extract exhibited high inhibitory property at 200 µg/mL on both DLA and EAC cell lines with 92.43±0.176 and 90.42±0.272% cell death respectively. In the spleen cell line root extract recorded the lowest cytotoxicity. The leaf and root extracts were subjected to MTT assay in human lung cancer (A549) and mouse Fibroblast (L929) cell lines to determine their anticancer property. Root recorded better apoptotic effect on the mouse fibroblast cell line and lung cancer cell line when compared to leaf extract. Molecular docking of the compounds Sarsasapogenin and Diosgenin present in in the plant to potential anticancer target proteins <em>viz </em>HSP-90 alpha and LXR-alpha verified their anticancer potential. Sarsasapogenin could bind to the active site of HSP-90 alpha with the low binding energy of -9.33Kcal/Mol and Diosgenin interacted with the active site of LXR-alpha with low binding energy of -6.52Kcal/Mol. These molecules are among the many bioactive principles that are ground to the anticancer activity of the crude extract and are eligible to be prospective antineoplastic drugs.</p> Athira Vimala Anand Swapna T Sukumaran Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 1 12 PALEOENVIRONMENT PLAYED KEY ROLE FOR THE ANATOLIAN POPULATIONS OF CYNIPS DIVISA (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE) <p>Red-pea gall wasp, <em>Cynips divisa</em>, is an oak- dependent species with a wide distribution range in the Western Palearctic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of the species across Anatolia and reveal possible factors that governed its contemporary phylogeographic pattern. For this purpose, we sequenced 433 base pairs of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the entire nuclear ITS2 region of 278 individuals collected from 22 localities. Our sequence data generated 115 cyt b haplotypes and 15 ITS2 alleles. Estimated genetic diversity for the species was well within the limits of other gall wasp species. Phylogenetic analysis pointed to a separation of <em>C. divisa</em> from outgroups around the Pliocene. Diversification estimates of main haplogroups show signals of major lineage divergences through the Quaternary period. Moreover, splits resulted in more shallow structuring during the last 780.000 years appear to play a key role in the geographic distribution of genetic diversity of red-pea gall wasp species in Anatolia. Our current results support the general view that phylogeography of the Anatolian cynipids has been mainly shaped in a period spanning the last few million years due mostly to changing paleoenvironmental conditions of the area.</p> Erhan Cimen Serap Mutun Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 13 23 SCREENING OF FRESHWATER MICROALGAE SPECIES FOR OCCURRENCE OF LECTINS AND THEIR CARBOHYDRATE-BINDING SPECIFICITY <p>Lectins are a group of proteins with specific carbohydrate-binding properties, gained importance as a potential bio-component for applications in therapeutic and biotechnology field. They are naturally present in various sources such as plants, algae, animals, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Detection of multiple disease biomarkers which are present in the biological samples can be analyzed by using these proteins as a diagnostic tool. In the present study, forty different freshwater microalgae were isolated from various local water-bodies and characterized as <em>Chlorophyta</em> and <em>Ochrophyta</em> strains. Hemagglutination activity of algal extracts was conducted for all isolated strains to evaluate the presence of lectin content using both native and enzyme-treated erythrocytes of different animals such as sheep, goat, chicken, and humans. Further, the hemagglutination inhibition test was carried out by using various carbohydrates and glycoproteins. All the tested algal extracts exhibited hemagglutination activity for at least one source of erythrocytes. With sheep erythrocytes 60% of the total algae tested showed agglutination, 45% with chicken erythrocytes, 20% with goat erythrocytes, and 5% with human O-type erythrocytes. Among 40 isolates, 24 species exhibited higher hemagglutinating titer value with trypsin treated erythrocytes. Whereas, specific oligosaccharides and glycoproteins inhibited the hemagglutination activity of the algal extracts. Hence, obtained results suggest that native freshwater microalgae can be a good source of lectins with biological significance.</p> Arekal Nagaraja Roopashri Janakiraman Savitha Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 24 34 SPATIOTEMPORAL EXPRESSION OF PRLR IN MURINE OVIDUCT DURING PREIMPLANTATION PERIOD <p>In mice, the oviduct is required for the timely accomplishment of gamete transport, fertilization, preimplantation embryo development, and to deliver a competent and healthy conceptus to the endometrium. Apart from the ovarian steroids, prolactin (PRL)from hypophysis acting through prolactin receptor (PRLR) plays a major role during early pregnancy. The present study is aimed to know the spatiotemporal localization of PRLR in the mouse oviduct during the pre- and peri-implantation phases of early pregnancy. Oviducts were collected from mice during different phases of early pregnancy, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, subjected to immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The intensities of immunohistochemical staining were measured in the oviductal subregions using ImageJ (Fiji) software. The expression of PRLR was principally found in the apical membrane and cytoplasm of oviductal cells, irrespective of its subregions (infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus). Nevertheless, the intensity of PRLR varies throughout early pregnancy. The highest expression of PRLR was observed in the ciliated epithelial cells of the infundibulum and ampullary region of the oviduct on gestation day (GD) 1.5 and 2.5. However, downregulation of PRLR in the oviductal epithelial cells was noticed during the peri- and post-implantation periods. The diminished PRLR expression in the epithelial cells was maintained thereafter. Western blot analysis revealed a single protein band with an apparent molecular weight of 90 kDa. It is inferred that time specific expression pattern of PRLR along the oviductal subregions indicates the requirement of prolactin hormone and its receptors during the preimplantation period.</p> Chaitra R. Sharma Praveen Kumar S. Kondaguli Laxmi S. Inamdar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 35 45 A PUTATIVE β-GLUCOSIDASE AND AN ENDO-1,4-β-GLUCANASE FROM POME METAGENOMIC DNA <p>Functional metagenomic approach with high-throughput screening can be used to identify tapped and untapped biocatalysts. Metagenomic DNA libraries of 4.49 Gbase were constructed from microbes in Malaysian palm oil mill effluent (POME). After culture experiment based on natural selection metagenomic DNA was extracted and cloned to pCC1FOS vector and transformed into EPI300T1<sup>R</sup>. Cellulose-degrading enzyme activity was screened with microtiter assay using methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUGlc) and methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC) as fluorogenic substrates. Reads were normalized using robust <strong><em>z</em></strong>-score and 100 highly rated clones were selected. Fosmids of these clones were isolated and sequenced with Hiseq strategy. Using Solexa, Velvet, SSPACE, Prodigal and Blastp, genes IDs of 96 putative cellulose-degrading enzymes were identified. Two putative metagenomic cellulose-degrading enzymes, MCDE1 with β-glucosidase activity and MCDE3 with endo-1,4-β-glucanase activity were produced, purified, and partially biochemically characterized.</p> Farah Fadwa Benbelgacem Adibah Parman Oualid Abdelkader Bellag Nabila Akhyar Md Zahangir Alam Hamzah Mohd. Salleh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 46 61 PLEURAL EFFUSION ASSOCIATED WITH FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS IN A KITTEN: MOLECULAR AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION <p>This study was aimed at investigating the molecular typing of coronavirus and histopathological findings of the lungs in a kitten with feline infectious peritonitis. A stray kitten, which was in respiratory distress and had not responded to a one-week course of antibiotic treatment, was referred to the Animal Hospital of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Atatürk University. In the physical examination, acute respiratory failure developed and did not respond emergency therapeutic intervention. Molecular and histopathological examinations were performed. Feline coronavirus type I was determined by sequence analysis of the lung and pleural fluid samples. Macroscopic findings revealed hemorrhagic fluid in the chest cavity. Fibrinoid necrosis, desquamation, edema and lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltrations were observed in the histopathological examination of the lungs. Thus, feline coronavirus type I was determined to cause severe lesions with edema, necrosis and lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltrations in the lungs and respiratory distress.</p> Basak Hanedan Mehmet Ozkan TIMURKAN Hakan AYDIN Serdar ALTUN Selim COMAKLI Kerim Emre YANAR Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 62 69 PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA) OF BODY MEASUREMENTS IN MALE SWAMP BUFFALO (Bubalus bubalis) OF INDONESIA <p>This study was carried out to determine principal component analysis (PCA) in 18 morphometrics of male swamp buffaloes (<em>Bubalus bubalis</em>) in the Central Java Province, Indonesia. A total of 44 animals were used in this study and separated into two groups of age i.e. 2PPI (2.0 - 3.5 years ages) with 24 animals and 3PPI (3.5 - 4.0 years age) with 20 animals. This study showed that five principal components (PC) of morphometric traits were found in both group and explained about 70% of the total variance in each ages group. Six morphometrics: <em>ossa vertebrae cervicale </em>length (OVCL), <em>ossa vertebrae thoracic </em>length (OVTL), <em>os humerus </em>length (OHL), <em>ossa radius ulna </em>length (ORUL), <em>os femoris </em>length (OFL), <em>ossa tibia-fibula </em>length (OTFL) were described as the first component (PC1) for 2PPI animals. Meanwhile, four morphometrics: <em>os metatarsals </em>length (OML), withers height (WH), chest depth (CD), hip height (HH) were showed as the PC1 for 2PPI animals. It was concluded that the general performance of WH, CD, HH can be used as morphometric selection criteria for swamp buffalo bulls at 3-4 years of age.</p> Widya Pintaka Bayu Putra Fiqy Hilmawan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 70 79 IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS ESSENTIAL OIL <p>This work was conducted as part of evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil extracted from a plant that belongs to the family of Myrtaceae: <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em>. The <em>E. globulus</em> essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation. First, the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of <em>E. globulus</em> essential oil was evaluated using the protein denaturation inhibition method compared to the reference drug Diclofenac. Then, the anti-inflammatory effect of <em>E. globulus</em> essential oil was studied in vivo using the 1% dextran edema model in the Wistar rat. The extraction of the essential oil gave a yield of 0,41 ± 0,01%. From the results obtained, it was noted that the <em>E. globulus</em> essential oil (250 μg/ml) and the drug Diclofenac (250 μg/ml) are capable of inhibiting denaturation of proteins with very high percentages. Thus, the assessment of the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect indicated that the treatment with the <em>E. globulus</em> essential oil showed a reduction of inflammatory reaction with different degrees of inhibition. The excellent anti-inflammatory potential of the essential oil of <em>E. globulus</em> may provide supports in the treatment of pathologies such as painful and inflammatory disorder. This shows that the essential oil of <em>E. globulus</em> would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials and could be harnessed in drug formulation.</p> Hamza Belkhodja Boumediene Meddah Khadidja Sidelarbi Djilali Bouhadi Bouchra Medjadel Amel Brakna Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 80 88 GLYCOINFORMATICS APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING TARGET POSITIONS TO INHIBIT INITIAL BINDING OF SARS-COV-2 S1 PROTEIN TO THE HOST CELL <p>COVID-19 outbreak is still threatening the public health. Therefore, in the middle of the pandemic, all kind of knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 may help us to find the solution. Determining the 3D structures of the proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions are of great importance in the fight against infection. Besides, post-translational modifications of the protein on 3D structure should be revealed in order to understand the protein function since these modifications are responsible for the host-pathogen interaction. Based on these, we predicted O-glycosylation and phosphorylation positions using full amino acid sequence of S1 protein. Candidate positions were further analyzed with enzyme binding activity, solvent accessibility, surface area parameters and the positions determined with high accuracy rate were used to design 3D O-glycoprotein structure of the S1 protein using carbohydrate force field. In addition, the interaction between the C-type lectin CD209L and α-mannose residues was examined and carbohydrate recognition positions were predicted. We suggest these positions as a potential target for the inhibition of the initial binding of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein to the host cell.</p> Muhammet Uslupehlivan Ecem Şener Uslupehlivan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 89 101 IN VITRO AND IN SILICO CYTOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF SOME ISATIN MANNICH BASES ON HUMAN MELANOMA CELLS <p>Mannich bases tend to suppress cell proliferation in damaged tissues because of particular metal chelation properties. Amine components of isatin mannich bases - piperidine (P1), morpholine (P2) and N-methyl piperazine (P3) – were evaluated for their cytotoxicity potentials on melanoma cells. P1, P2 and P3 products were purified using crystallization and characterized by NMR. Human melanoma cells (G361) were produced in DMEM medium including 10% FBS, 1% penicillin/streptomycin at 37°C and 5% CO<sub>2</sub> conditions. Compounds were applied to medium containers separated to 24 pieces plates as 1x10<sup>5</sup> melanoma cells/well for 24 hours. Expression levels of caspase-3, p53 and β-actin were investigated from RNA samples by qRT-PCR. Mannich bases were efficient at 20, 20 and 50 μg/ml concentrations for P1, P2 and P3, respectively. P2 (20 μg/ml) showed the highest cytotoxic effect with 92 percent. The most significant increase in p53 gene expression was carried out by P2 product with 6.78 fold compared to control group. P2 also upregulated caspase-3 expression by 9.72 fold. Newly synthesized Mannich bases, especially P2, were found to have antitumor potential. Moreover, molecular docking studies revealed that P2 is a potent allosteric activator of caspase-3. However, there is need for in vivo trials and extensive researches to fully elucidate the molecular bioefficacies of these molecules.</p> Mehmet Mustafa Isgor Altug Kucukgul Muhammet Karaman Dilan Ozmen Ozgun Telat Yanik Halise Inci Gul Mehtap Bulgurcu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 102 114 EFFICACY OF ANTI-MICROFOULING AND TOXICITY FROM RED SEAWEED - Portieria hornemannii (Lyngbye) P.C.Silva 1987 <p>Biofouling on drenched structures causes foremost monetary losses in the aquatic system. The point of this work was to screen the phytochemicals and antifouling capability of the different solvent extracts from seaweed <em>Portieria hornemannii</em> against fouling bacteria. Our methodology joins <em>in-vitro</em> toxicity bioassay, GC-MS and FT-IR analysis were carried out. The main target was to explore the biological activities of this species and to investigate the presence of chemical constituents. Primarily phytochemical analysis deduced the presence of the alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, coumarins carbohydrates and glycosides. The antibacterial activities were tested against ten biofilm-forming bacteria using hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of <em>P. hornemannii</em>. The methanol extract revealed the highest inhibition zone against <em>Bacillus flexus </em>(15.4 mm) and lower inhibition recorded in the acetone extract showed the zone of inhibition against the <em>Bacillus aryabhattai </em>(8.5 mm). The toxicity assay was analyzed against <em>Artemia </em>nauplii, the 50% inhibitory concentration (LC-50) value of methanol extract was recorded as low toxic (500 µg/ml). The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of methanol fraction had shown the presence of bioactive compounds such as Oxirane, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 25-methyl-methyl ester and Lauroyl peroxide. Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) reveals the presence of functional groups in the methanol extract of <em>P</em><em>. hornemannii</em>. The present work recommended that the methanol extract of <em>P.hornemannii</em> might be further explored for testing biological activities after the isolation of individual components. The mixture and various combinations of these chemicals may hint at actual potent agents which may be novel against vast varieties of biofilm creatures.</p> Kaviriya Sakthivel Anantharaman Perumal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 115 127 TOXICITY AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF PACIFIC RAIN TREE (Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.) PODS <p>Pacific rain tree (<em>Samanea saman</em>) of the Family Fabaceae was investigated for its pharmacological potentials. In this study, <em>S. saman</em> pods were tested for their cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity and antioxidant properties. The pods were collected and oven-dried prior to extraction with 95% ethanol for 48 hours and evaporation using rotary evaporator at 300 rpm. Using brine shrimp lethality assay, the extracts were found have cytotoxic effects against <em>Artemia salina</em> larvae with LC50 value of 4.65 ppm. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of rain tree pods exhibited embryotoxicity against zebra fish (<em>Danio rerio</em>). Zebra fish exposed to the rain tree pod extract for 48 hours were observed to have head and tail malformation, growth retardation, flexure, stunted tail, limited movement, coagulation, undetached tail, lack of somite and absence of heartbeat. The free radical scavenging activity of the samples were estimated using the stable 2, 2’diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The extract recorded an EC50 of 70.92 ppm. Results of this study revealed that <em>S. saman</em> pods can be a potential source of antioxidants and other bioactive compounds with cytotoxic and teratogenic properties.</p> James Kennard S. Jacob Jennifer C. Paltiyan Hezekiah Mirielle P. Aguinaldo Ron Patrick Cuagdan Campos Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 128 136 ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF STEM BARK OF PARKIA BIGLOBOSA ON WEST AFRICAN DWARF GOATS INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS <p>The anthelmintic effects of stem bark extracts of <em>Parkia biglobosa </em>was evaluated on West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. The stem bark of the plant was obtained from Kwara state of Nigeria. The extraction was done and yielded Crude Methanol Stem Bark Extracts (CMSBE), Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and Aqueous (AQ) fraction. The anthelmintic potentials were studied <em>in vivo</em> in 18 WAD goats in six completely randomised groups, A, B, C, D, E and F with three animals per group. Group A was treated with 5mL/kg of distilled water as negative control, group B with 6.25mg/kg of Albendazole (ABZ)(positive control), groups C and D with 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg of CMSBE respectively and groups E and F with 1000mg/kg of EA fraction and AQ fraction each respectively. Faecal samples were collected for two weeks after treatment to evaluate faecal egg counts. After 16th day, one animal was euthanized from each group to determined percentage deparasitization. The result from this study revealed that, the phytochemical constituents present in CMSBE were alkaloid, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, glycosides, flavonoids, oils, phlobatannins, reducing sugar, saponins, sterols/steroids, tannin (condensed and hydrolysable) and terpenoids. <em>In vivo</em> result showed significant (P&lt;0.05) reduction in egg per gram (EPG) faeces in group B, C, D and E when compared to group A, all at 16th day post-treatment. Group F showed less efficacy in EPG reduction. The deparasitisation obtained in groups D and E were higher than group B, though without statistical significant difference. The study has shown that, CMSBE and EA fraction of <em>P. </em><em>biglobosa </em>exhibited <em>in vivo </em>anthelmintic activities at 2000mg/kg and 1000mg/kg respectively that are sufficiently comparable to ABZ, hence, have potentials as a novel anthelmintic ethnobotanic preparation for control of <em>H. contortus</em> in WAD goats. It is therefore recommended to carry out a further research on larger population size of goats.</p> James Gana Josiah Okechukwu Anthony Obi John Yisa Adama Innocent Chukwuemeka James Omalu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 137 151 DIGESTIBILITY AND METABOLISM OF YAKUT HORSES IN FEEDING THEM WITH SET FODDER ADDITIVES FROM NATURAL RAW MATERIALS IN EXTREME CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA) <p>The article presents the research on the effect of the set fodder additives from the local natural raw materials on the indices of the digestibility of nutrients, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus absorption, the dynamics of body weight and the physiology of young horses of the Yakut breed in the conditions of the Republic of Sakha Yakutia. To determine the developed formula of the set fodder additives from the local raw materials: sapropel from a local lake and coniferous flour according to cropping periods, Hongurin’s zeolite, natural Kempendyai salt, a scientific and economic experiment has been carried out on young Yakut horses’ breed of the indigenous type in the conditions of Central Yakutia. The feeding conditions for all animals of the experimental groups have been the same. But the animals in the control groups have been also fed with the set fodder additives in different proportions. The supplement of fodder additives to the daily ration of young horses has increased the digestibility of nutrients in terms of dry matter by 8.03% and 6.79%, organic matter – 7.83% and 6.48%, crude protein – 2.52% and 1.31%, crude fat – 4.01% and 2.16%, crude fibre – 12.78% and 10.63% and free-nitrogen extracts – 6.94% and 5.83%; nitrogen deposit in the horses’ body in the experimental groups by 18.38% and 7.58%, calcium – 8.28% and 5.75%, and phosphorus – 5.12% and 0.88%. The animals fed by the additives have grown up more intensively by 10.42% and 7.92%. In assessing the biochemistry and morphological composition of the blood, there have not been any adverse effects in the horses’ body.</p> Mikhail F. Grigorev Alexandra I Grigoreva Vladimir Soloshenko Natalia M. Chernogradskaya Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 152 168 MAST CELL DENSITY AND EXPRESSION OF TRYPTASE, IFN-γ, TNF-α IN CAPSAICIN-TREATED RAT UTERUS <p>Capsaicin is the active ingredient in cayenne pepper. Capsaicin is used in medicine and the pharmaceutical industry due to its physiological and pharmacological effect. Mast cell are scattered a long both external and internal surfaces of the body where they act as the first line defense. It is known that immune system cells and some cytokines secreted from these cells play a key role in the early stages of implantation. It is known that mast cells and many cytokines can indirectly affect hormonal mechanisms in the uterus. The aim of this study is to investigate the mast cell heterogeneity and numerical distribution in the uterus of capsaicin applied rats during different developmental periods. Forty Sprague Dawley female rats were used. Rats were divided into two groups as pubertal and adult, and each group was divided into two treatment groups. The first group remained without any treatment (control group), the second group (experimental-capsaicin treated group or CAP group) received daily subcutaneous injections of 1 mg/kg/day capsaicin and tissue samples were processed for conventional histology and for immunohistochemistry using the Streptavidin-Biotin Peroxidase method and a rabbit polyclonal anti-VR1 primary antibody. In the presented study the high expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ and mast cell number were observed in capsaicin group. In a conclusion, this study revealed the relationship between capsaicin, TNF-α, IFN-γ and mast cells in the uterus.</p> Serife Tutuncu Tugrul Ertugrul Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2022-01-23 2022-01-23 16 1 169 181