Journal of Applied Biological Sciences <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>Journal of Applied Biological sciences (JABS)&nbsp; is a peer-reviewed, open access journal, dedicated to publication of original research, review articles, short communications on applied researches in following fields of biology; Physiology and&nbsp;Pharmacology,&nbsp;Cell biology, Developmental biology, Structural biology, Microbiology, Ecology, Molecular biology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Food Science, Medicinal Plants, Ethnobotany, Environmental biology, Marine biology, Viorology, Veterinary Science, Medical Biology, Bioinformatics, Biophysics, Evolutionary biology, Animal Science, Plant Science, Plant pathology, Plant physiology, Plant breeding,&nbsp;Nematology, Agriculture Science, Agronomy, Soil Science and Horticulture.</p> <p><strong>Plagiarism Policy</strong></p> <p>Authors should ensure the originality of their contents, while preparing a manuscript draft. In case the authors have used the work and/or words of others this must be appropriately cited or quoted. All the articles submitted to JABS shall be screened for plagiarism using&nbsp;<strong>iThenticate</strong>&nbsp;(online plagiarism detection software). In case, plagiarism is detected during review/editorial process, such manuscript(s) will be rejected immediately. If the plagiarism is proven after publication, such manuscript(s) will be retracted from the journal and appropriate announcement will be placed in this regards. We can also consider appropriate action against authors depending upon the seriousness of the case. It includes;</p> <ol> <li class="show">Debarring the authors from publication in future.</li> <li class="show">We can bring such instants in notice of author's funding agencies, author's institutes (where they works) and to the original authors whose work has been&nbsp;plagiarized.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;JABS welcomes&nbsp;article&nbsp;submissions&nbsp;and&nbsp;<strong>does not charge any article submission or processing&nbsp;charges</strong>.</p> </div> en-US (Prof. Dr. Mehmet KARATAS, Editor in Chief, JABS, Necmettin Erbakan University, Department of Biotechnology, Meram, Konya/TURKEY) (Assoc. Prof. Dr. Husamettin EKICI, Editor, Kırıkkale University, Ankara / TURKEY) Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:14:51 +0300 OJS 60 IDENTIFICATION OF SUPERIOR WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES FOR GRAIN YIELD AND DISEASE RESISTANCE IN GEORGIA <p>Wheat has historically been a staple food crop in Georgia. Wheat sown area and yield over the past 5 years averages 46.5 thousand hectares and 2.1 t/ha, respectively. Unfortunately, the competitiveness of wheat has reduced in Georgia which can be explained, among other reasons, by growing low-yielding and poorly-adapted varieties. Strengthening the grain production in the country through growing improved varieties is one of the internal priorities for the Georgian agricultural sector. The study objective was to evaluate the relative performance of nine breeding lines and one local variety at four locations in Georgia for two years to understand the main factors contributing to genotype x environment interaction as well as to identify superior disease resistant and high-yielding genotypes for potential use as variety candidates. The combined analysis of variance for grain yield and 1000-kernel weight showed that the effects of genotypes, locations and years and all interactions were highly significant for grain yield, TKW and other agronomic traits. According to the experiment data, four genotypes HBK0935W, KUV/LJILN, F885K1.1 and AMSEL/TUI showed especially high yield, 1000 kernel weight and agronomic traits. The highest yielding genotype AMSEL/TUI with moderate resistance to diseases, high agronomic traits and quality could be recommended for growing in all wheat producing areas tested in this study.</p> Zoia Sikharulidze , Gulnari Chkhutiashvili, Tsotne Samadashvili, Ketino Natsarisvili, Rusudan Dumbadze, Lamziri Abdul Gorgiladze, Ketino Tariel Sikharulidze, Daniyar Tajibaev, Alexey Morgounov Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 INVESTIGATION OF THE CLINICAL EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF ALGAN HEMOSTATIC AGENT (AHA) IN THE RAT ABDOMINAL AORTIC BLEEDING MODEL <p>In cases of death due to trauma, failure to control bleeding is shown as one of the main reasons. Therefore, effective and rapid control of bleeding is very important in reducing traumatic death rates. Many hemostatic products are used for this purpose. Algan Hemostatic Agent (AHA) is a herbal hemostatic agent obtained from a mixture of different plants. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the herbal extract Algan Hemostatic Agent (AHA) in different pharmacological forms in the abdominal aortic injury model of rats. Sixty four 5-8 weeks old male rats were randomly divided into 8 groups, each consisting of eight rats (4 groups were heparinized and 4 groups were non-heparinized). Experimental abdominal aortic hemorrhage was established and physiological saline soaked sponge was applied to the control group. AHA liquid soaked sponge, liquid and powder forms were applied to the experimental groups. Bleeding time was found to be significantly shorter in other AHA groups compared to the control group. The AHA powder form was able to control bleeding by 62.5% and 87.5% in the heparinized and non-heparinized groups, respectively, in the second application (3 minutes). In the second application, the AHA sponge formulation was able to control bleeding at 37.5% and 62.5% in the heparinized and non-heparinized groups, respectively. In the second application, the AHA liquid formulation was able to control the bleeding by 50% and 75% in the heparinized and non-heparinized groups, respectively. After three applications, bleeding was controlled in all AHA groups. Bleeding could not be controlled in the heparinized and non-heparinized control groups and the bleeding time was over 6 minutes. According to the results of this study, it has been shown that AHA is an effective hemostatic agent in bleeding control compared to the control group. Again, this study showed that the technique of creating an injury with a needle in the aortic hemorrhage model is more standardized than other methods.</p> Ali Kumandas, Husamettin Ekici Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 ELUCIDATING A PATHWAY FOR DEGRADATION OF AZO DYE REACTIVE RED 120 BY BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM <p>A detailed characterization of degraded metabolites is essential for understanding the mechanisms of complex dye degradation, as a result of metabolic activity of micro-organisms. The resulting knowledge may prove insightful for designing microbial tools for the purpose of bioremediation. In the current study, an azo dye RR120, completely decolorized by a bacterial consortium RAR, was analysed for identification of degraded metabolites. For this purpose, the dye degradation was first confirmed using qualitative techniques like UV-Vis spectrophotometer and HPTLC. On confirmation of biodegradation, the metabolites thus produced were analysed using techniques like HPLC, GC-MS and FTIR to identify stable and/ or unstable intermediate products. Specifically, these studies indicated that more than 2 intermediates are produced on degradation of RR120 dye. The cleavage of –N=N–bond, degradation of aromatic rings, loss of sulphone groups and breakage of C–Cl bond was evident from FTIR spectrum. Based on HPTLC analysis, there occurred a high probability that the degraded metabolites were assimilated by the cells of pure cultures and consortium RAR. Finally, based on above information, a detailed azo dye RR120 degradation pathway was proposed. Thus, the current study provides complete information on the metabolic activity of bacterial consortium RAR and the degradation of complex azo dye RR120.</p> Birmole Radhika, Aruna K. Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 IN VIVO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY AND POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF FICUS CARICA L. FRUIT <p>The present study aims at studying the phytochemical compounds and evaluating <em>in vivo</em> the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of <em>Ficus carica</em> L. fruit. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins were determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum trichloride and vanillin reagents respectively. The <em>in vivo</em> anti-inflammatory activity was realized by paw edema model in mice induced by intraplantar injection of λ-carrageenan and treated with doses of each extract at 250, 350, and 500 mg/kg body weight. Paws’ tissues were subjected to histological study to devote the effect of extracts at the tissue scale. Preliminary phytochemical screening indicates a significant appearance of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and steroids in both types of extracts. The aqueous extract marks the highest values in total phenolics, total flavonoids and condensed tannins contents: 951.06±61.08 mg GAE/100g dry weight (DW), 428.34±15.42 mg QE/100g DW and 474.07±50.25 mg CE/100g DW respectively. Our results show that both treatments with aqueous and ethanolic extract present a significant inhibition <em><sup>*</sup>P</em>˂0.05 of the edema in a dose-dependent manner compared to the standard group (treated with 2-[2-(2,6-dichloroanilino) phenyl]acetic acid as anti-inflammatory medicine) during the whole experiment period. This was confirmed histologically by the observation of a less intense inflammatory infiltrate as the dose of extracts increase. This study reveals a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect in <em>Ficus carica</em> L. fruit extracts which could be related to the high amounts of phenolic compounds. Thus, fruit can be a promising natural substitute therapeutic to treat inflammation.</p> Leila Kebal, Nadjet MOSTEFA, Noureddine DJEBLI Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN HORSE BLOOD AND RELATION BETWEEN AGE, GENDER, BREED, HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS <p>The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of macro and essential and non-essential trace elements and correlation between biochemical and hematological parameters, age, gender, and breed in horses. The whole blood samples of 20 horses were collected from İstanbul (n=11) and Tekirdağ (n=9) cities. Macro (Ca, K, Mg, and P), trace essential (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn) and non-essential (Al, Cd, Hg, and Pb) element concentrations were determined by ICP-OES. In addition, hematological and biochemical parameters levels were determined. Ca, K and Mg concentrations were within the normal reference range, P concentrations were higher than the reference in horses. Blood concentrations were sorted as K&gt;Ca&gt;P&gt;Mg for macro (mg L<sup>-1</sup>) elements, were Fe&gt;Cu&gt; Zn&gt;Se for essential trace (μg L<sup>-1</sup>) elements and as Al&gt;Pb&gt;Cd&gt;Hg for non-essential trace (μg L<sup>-1</sup>) elements. The negative and positive correlation between the hematological and biochemistry parameter levels and element levels were significant (p &lt;0.05, p &lt;0.01) between Mg-TRIG, Mg-CHOL, Zn-TB, Al-LDL, and Hg-CREA.</p> Fulya Altınok Yipel, Mustafa Yipel, Nuri Altuğ Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-AGING AND WHITENING EFFICACY OF COLLAGEN TRIPEPTIDE AND CHICKEN PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE <p>Aging is one of the inevitable problems people face, age can cause significant change in skin, both inside and out. As such, ingredients that can delay the aging of skin are highly valued. There are many peptides that have been found to be beneficial to human health, they can reduce the risk of diseases and can be used as anti-aging ingredients. Previous studies have evaluated collagen tripeptide and chicken protein hydrolysate. The studies reported that collagen tripeptide and chicken protein hydrolysate can enhance wound healing and improve physical stamina, respectively. Collagen tripeptide and chicken protein hydrolysate have the potential for applications in a variety of fields. In this study, reconstructed human epidermal were used<em> in vitro</em> skin irritation tests to test anti-aging and whitening effects, and the tests were used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of collagen tripeptide and chicken protein hydrolysate. The results showed that collagen tripeptide and chicken protein hydrolysate were non-irritant. At 20 mg/mL, the collagen type I synthesis of chicken protein hydrolysate and collagen tripeptide were increased to 99.3% and 129.4% and promoted fibroblast proliferation to 62.2% and 22.1%. 4 mg/mL of chicken protein hydrolysate can inhibit melanin production at 29.7% (with α-MSH stimulation). There is the potential for use in cosmetics, and may be a potential candidate for development in anti-aging and whitening.</p> Hung-Yuan Kao, Shu-I Jen; Yu-Chen Kao Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM AND L-CARNITINE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETIC RATS <p>In this study, the effects of magnesium (Mg) and L-carnitine on body weight, blood glucose, plasma lipase and paraoxonase activities, serum lipids, lipid peroxidation (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in rats with experimental diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin. Eighty Wistar albino male rats (200-250 g) were divided into eight groups of ten. First group (control) received 2 ml distilled water; group 2 received 50 mg/kg (b.w., i.p.) STZ; Group 3 received 125 mg/kg (b.w.) Mg; group 4 received 300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine; group 5 received 125 mg/kg (b.w.) Mg+300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine; group 6 received 50 mg/kg (b.w.) STZ+125 mg/kg (b.w.) Mg; Group 7 received 50 mg/kg (b.w.) STZ+300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine; Group 8 received 50 mg/kg (b.w.) STZ+125 mg/kg (b.w.) Mg+300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine for four weeks. In rats with diabetes, oral administration of 125 mg/kg Mg and 300 mg/kg L-carnitine separately, was found to have no effect on body weight, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol and TAC. In diabetic rats, serum MDA levels decreased with the administration of both substances separately and/or in combination, and triglyceride levels decreased with only L-carnitine and Mg+L-carnitine administration. Especially with the combined application of Mg and L-carnitine, the high blood glucose levels determined in rats with diabetes decreased significantly. As a result, it was concluded that Mg and L-carnitine may have antidiabetic effects, especially in combination.</p> Nurkan Karabulut Kaya, Meryem Eren, Meryem Şentürk, Zeynep Soyer Sarıca Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 COMPARISON OF FRESHWATER ALGAE TYPES IN JUNE AND SEPTEMBER 2019 AT MAE RAM STREAM, MAE RIM DISTRICT, CHIANG MAI PROVINCE, THAILAND <p>The distribution of freshwater algae in Mae Ram Stream in Mae Rim District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand was investigated in June and October of 2019. Benthic diatoms and macroalgae were collected from nine sampling sites located along a stream in the upstream to downstream areas. The physical and chemical water properties at each sampling sites were analysed and classified for the trophic status. The results show that the water temperature ranged between 22.0-30.0 °C, Velocity 0.28-0.79 m/s, Turbidity 2.98-182.33 NTU, pH 7.01-8.02, Total Dissolved Solids 91.93-162.01 mg/l, Conductivity 131.33-249.35 µs/cm<sup>-1</sup>, DO 4.88-8.02 mg/l, BOD<sub>5 </sub>0.27-3.47 mg/l, Nitrate 0.29-1.29 mg/l, Ammonium 0.09-0.61 mg/l and Soluble reactive phosphorus 0.27-0.96 mg/l. The trophic status of the water at each sampling site was classified as the oligotrophic to mesotrophic. A total of 111 benthic diatoms were found. The most abundant species were <em>Eolimna minima</em>, <em>Nitzschia </em>sp.1,<em> Achnanthes pusilla</em>, <em>Gomphonema lagenula </em>and <em>Nitzschia palea</em>, respectively. The highest species abundance was recorded for <em>Eolimna minima</em> which was found at all sampling sites, whereas <em>Nitzschia palea</em> was found as a majority group only at the downstream sampling sites. A total of 14 species of macroalgae were found and they were classified into four divisions, <em>Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, Charophyta</em> and <em>Rhodophyta</em>. The most abundant group was <em>Chlorophyta</em> and the least abundant group was <em>Rhodophyta</em>. Furthermore, <em>Compsopogon</em> spp. (<em>Rhodophyta</em>) was found to be a common species at the downstream sites, whereas <em>Nitella </em>sp. and <em>Chara </em>sp. (<em>Charophyta</em>) were only found at the upstream sampling sites.</p> Pongpan Leelahakriengkrai, Tatporn Kunpradid Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 IgG IMMUNE RESPONSE AGAINST SALIVARY GLAND PROTEIN EXTRACT OF DENGUE VECTOR Aedes aegypti <p>The implication of<em> Aedes aegypti </em>(<em>Ae. aegypti</em>) salivary components on the host immune system remains a crucial factor to be revealed for evaluating the risk of dengue infection<em>. </em>The salivary gland of mosquitoes has been known to contain several biological components that facilitate blood-feeding and contribute to successful pathogens transmission<em>. </em>These processes are mediated by the antigenic and immunogenic molecules inside the salivary cocktails<em>. </em>During the blood-feeding, mosquitoes injected the saliva and hosts will develop immune responses as a counter-attack against salivary components<em>. </em>Several studies showed that the evaluation of antibody responses towards arthropod-vector saliva could be a biological indicator to estimate the vector’s exposure<em>. </em>Sensitisation of <em>Ae. aegypti </em>Salivary Gland Protein Extract (SGPE) were used to clarify mosquito feeding’s implication to host humoral immune response (IgG)<em>. </em>Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to analyse IgG quantitatively from sera sample of the murine model, i.e. BALB mice<em>. </em>Results showed that elevated IgG levels were in accordance with the increasing concentration of SGPE as well as longer time of exposure. This result indicated that mice immune response had been modulated by<em> Ae. aegypti</em> salivary components. Therefore, we could assess <em>Ae. aegypti </em>salivates exposure by analysing IgG quantitatively as potential biomarkers for vector bites.</p> Syubbanul Wathon, Wheny Purwati, Rike Oktarianti, Kartika Senjarini Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 INVESTIGATION OF WOUND HEALING BY INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY IN A FULL-THICKNESS SKIN WOUND MODEL IN RATS <p>Non-contact methods such as infrared thermography (IRT) stand out with their important advantages such as reducing the risk of contamination, providing real-time results, quantitatively determining a relative finding such as pain, being economical, easy, non-invasive, and safe. The study was aimed to evaluate the differences of intra-wound, wound edge, and non-wound local temperatures in untreated and treated wounds of a full-thickness excisional skin wound model by IRT in rats. Twelve Wistar albino rats (200–300 g, 8 weeks old, male) were used in the study. A full-thickness excisional skin wound (2.25 cm<sup>2</sup>) was created in the dorsal interscapular region of animals under general anesthesia. Animals were randomly divided into two groups (n=6), Group 1 (control) and Group 2 (dexpanthenol treatment), and the wound surface was treated topically once a day. Images were taken from the wound area of all animals with an infrared thermography camera 0, 1, 7, and 14 days after the wound creation. Minimum and maximum temperatures were measured with the Trotec IC-IR Report software for IRT in three different areas as intra-wound, wound margin, and non-wound. Local temperature changes were examined and analyzed statistically. In addition, the time/local temperature correlation was analyzed for the wound treatment. In the results, it was determined that the local temperature increase was less as the distance from the wound center and the wound treatment time progressed (p&lt;0.05). Compared to Group 1, it was determined that there was less local temperature increase and less inflammation in Group 2 as the treatment progressed (p&lt;0.05). In conclusion, this study determined the reference values for the use of IRT in wound healing studies in the full-thickness excisional skin wound model in rats. Further research is needed to standardize the methodology for using IRT in other wound models, such as infected wounds and diabetic wounds.</p> Mehmet Zeki Yılmaz Deveci, Cafer Tayer Işler, Ömer Kırgız Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS AND KERATINOCYTE REGENERATIVE POTENTIAL OF CASSIA ALATA (LINN) LEAF EXTRACTS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR WOUND HEALING <p>In this study, dried and ground plant leaves of <em>Cassia alata</em> were extracted with methanol and water, which were then subjected to various analyses. Morphological changes of human keratinocytes in response to plant extracts were observed with a differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope imaging system. The cell viability and proliferation effects of the plant extracts were also evaluated via colorimetric cytotoxicity assays and the CyQUANT® assay. Anti-inflammatory effects of the plant extracts were evaluated by flow cytometry with a cytometric bead array (CBA) kit and also cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme inhibition assays. Results of the DIC microscopy assay indicated that Human keratinocytes treated with either the <em>C. alata </em>methanol (CAM) or aqueous (CAA) extracts (0.1-0.2 mg/mL) achieved 100% confluency. Cytotoxicity testing confirmed that the plant extracts were not toxic to keratinocyte cells at the concentrations used in the study. Only two cytokines <em>i.e</em>. interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were detected by the CBA method, with the results confirming that none of the plant extracts induce a pro-inflammatory effect. Moreover, CAM and CAA extracts showed strong anti-inflammatory effects in suppressing IL-8. Both plant extracts (6.25-100 µg/mL) demonstrated strong inhibitory effects on COX-1 and 5-LOX enzymes compared to the standards <em>i.e</em>. indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, respectively. However, inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme was less compared with indomethacin. The CAM extract at a concentration of 6.25 µg/mL, produced strong inhibition of COX-1 and 5-LOX enzymes, which was greater than that of the respective control treatments at the same concentration. Hence, our results indicate that the <em>C. alata</em> leaf extracts have a strong anti-inflammatory potential, which could be used to treat wounds and inflammation associated with the skin.</p> Vajira Asela Agampodi, Trudi Collet Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 DETERMINATION OF YIELD CHARACTERS OF SOME LINSEED (Linum usitatissimum) CULTIVARS UNDER RAINFED CONDITION IN EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN <p>Cultivar selection plays an important role in the production of linseed, which is produced and used for various purposes. This study aimed to determine the yield and yield components of 10 linseed (<em>Linum usitatissimum</em>) cultivars in the Eastern Mediterranean ecological conditions. In this experiment, which was established with 3 replications according to the randomised complete block design, all cultivars were produced as winter crop. While the differences among the cultivars were statistically significant in terms of plant height, first branch height, number of branch, number of boll and seed yield, the seed number per boll, 1000 seed weight, biological yield, straw yield and harvest index were insignificant. When the data were examined, it was determined that all cultivars were suitable for dual-purpose (oil, fibre) production, yet it was concluded that Sarı-85 cultivar was more prone to production for oil purposes due to its superiority in terms of the number of branch and boll and its short plant height. The NewTurk cultivar showed compliance with the ecological conditions for fibre production, and the cv. Milas proved its advantage in terms of yield and yield components aimed at production for dual purposes. Determination of the yield and yield components of <em>Linum usitatissimum</em> cultivars, which can be produced for dual-purposes due to the strategic importance of fibre and oil production, in the Eastern Mediterranean ecological conditions will shed light on next studies and production plans.</p> Yusuf Ziya Aygün, Mehmet Mert Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 POLYPHENOLS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF XANTHORIA PARIETINA (L.) Th. Fr. METHANOL EXTRACTS UNDER LEAD STRESS <p>The main objective of this study was to investigate the variations in the content of polyphenols and flavonoids in lead-stressed <em>X. </em><em>parietina </em>(L.) Th. Fr. lichen and to study the antibacterial activity of its methanol extract, Lichen thalli have been incubated at lead concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mM for 96 hours. The antibacterial activity of methanol extract was evaluated against three Gram-positive bacteria (<em>Bacillus cereus</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>) and five Gram-negative bacteria (<em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>, <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Enterobacter spp.</em>) The analysis of the obtained results data showed that <em>X. parietina</em> is able to accumulate lead correlating with Pb(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> availability in the substrate, it also highlight that lead-induced stress causes significant increase in polyphenol and flavonoid contents with increasing Pb(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> concentrations, but with high concentrations, polyphenol and flavonoid contents decrease . Furthermore, results show a positive correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid contents and the variations of the size of the inhibition zone diameter. Based on these results, Gram-negative bacteria were shown to be more resistant to the extracts than Gram-positive- bacteria.</p> Ouahiba Benhamada, Nabila Benhamada, Essaid Leghouchi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 THE CORRELATION BETWEEN HSPA2, CHOROMATIN DAMAGE, FERTILIZATION, AND EMBRYO QUALITY IN ASTHENOTERATOZOOSPERMIA INDIVIDUALS UNDER INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION <p>A testis-specific member of the HSP70 family is heat-shock protein A2 (HSPA2), which is recognized as a factor for succession ART (assisted reproductive technology) in male factor infertility and correlate with sperm maturation. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between HSPA2, chromatin damage, fertilization, and embryo quality in individuals with Asthenoteratozoospermia undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Sperm were provided from 50 Asthenoteratozoospermia (ATZ), and 45 Normospermia (NS) ejaculations. Sperm parameters (concentration, motility, and morphology), DNA fragmentation index (DFI), protamine deficiency, and HSPA2 level on sperm, as well as the correlation between HSPA2 content and sperm parameters and embryo quality, were evaluated in the groups. ICSI was applied to achieve a successful outcome. The results indicated a significant decrease in HSPA2 in the ATZ group compared to the NS group, resulting in a decrease in sperm quality and DNA integrity (p&lt;0.001). Fertilization rate (p&lt;0.05), cleavage (p&lt;0.05), and embryo quality (p&lt;0.001) were significantly reduced in ATZ individuals compared to NS individuals. There is a significant correlation between HSPA2 expression with sperm motility and normal morphology (p&lt;0.05). There was also a significant correlation between HSPA2 expression and DFI, protamine deficiency, and embryo quality (p&lt;0.001). Aberrant HSPA2 expression has a key role in chromatin damage and fertilization processes.</p> Rahil Jannatifar, Hamid Piroozmanesh, Ebrahim Cheraghi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 MONOFLORAL BRASSICA NIGRA POLLEN IMPROVES OXIDATIVE STRESS AND METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS <p>Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by metabolic and oxidative stress-related complications and supportive treatment with natural products might prevent or delay the progression of these complications. The present study hypothesized that <em>Brassica nigra</em> pollen (BNP), shown to have metabolic and antioxidative properties, can reduce oxidative stress and genotoxicity and improve metabolic parameters in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg). The rats were divided into four groups; control rats; control group rats given BNP; diabetic rats; diabetic group rats given BNP. Rats were given with BNP for thirty days (350 mg/kg/day). Serum insulin, blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase levels were evaluated using an auto-analyzer. Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured with spectrophotometric methods. Serum paraoxonase (PON), arylesterase (ARE), superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities were determined using commercial kits. Genotoxicity was determined by the bone marrow micronucleus (MN) method. BNP recovered the increased plasma and heart, muscle, liver, and kidney tissue MDA and serum glucose and total cholesterol levels. BNP increased serum PON, ARE activities and showed antigenotoxic activity by decreasing MN frequency in the BNP<em>-</em>treated diabetic rats. BNP has antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic properties and can be a promising supportive therapeutic agent in diabetes mellitus for improving treatment outcomes and reducing treatment-related and/or diabetes-related complications.</p> Sibel Taş, Emre Sarandöl, Cansu Nur Tekin, Aycan Tosunoğlu, Özgür Vatan, Huzeyfe Hürriyet, Cengiz Bozyiğit, Nilüfer Çinkiliç, Tolga Çavaş, Melahat Dirican Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Applied Biological Sciences Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300