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  • Fahimi Saeedeh Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  • Shahrbanoo Oryan Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
  • Ramesh Ahmadi Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Qom
  • Akram Eidi Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Peganum harmala, phenolic compounds, high-performance liquid chromatography, antioxidant


Peganum harmala L. is a multipurpose medicinal plant frequently used for psychoactive recreational purposes. Harmaline, Harmine, Harmalol, Harmol, and Tetrahydroharmine were determined and quantified as the main b-carboline alkaloids in its extracts. Seeds and roots consisted of the greatest levels of alkaloids, while stems and leaves included low levels of alkaloids. This study aimed to investigate the chemical components, anti-oxidant properties, and lethal toxicity of alkaloids extracted from P. harmala. Accordingly, this plant was collected from Zahedan province (Iran) in spring, and methanolic extract of its seed and leaf was extracted by the Soxhlet method. Then, phytochemical analyses included identifying flavonoids and phenolic compounds, anti-oxidant test, FT-IR analysis, and HPLC analysis. Also, the test was conducted after orally administrating the three doses of the methanolic extract and Harmine to 54 male Wistar rats in three groups (n=6 per group). The results show that, although the anti-oxidant properties of methanolic extract of leaves are higher (because of the existence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds) than seeds, there is a higher amount of β-Carboline in seeds of the plant. The results showed that Harmine was toxic at a much lower dose than the seed extract, and the seed extract can be toxic in low doses than leaf extract.


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How to Cite

Saeedeh, F., Oryan, S., Ahmadi, R., & Eidi, A. (2022). EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COMPONENTS, ANTI-OXIDANT PROPERTIES, AND LETHAL TOXICITY OF ALKALOIDS EXTRACTED FROM ESPAND (Peganum harmala). Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 16(2), 257–265. Retrieved from https://jabsonline.org/index.php/jabs/article/view/971