Abstract views: 53 / PDF downloads: 249



Ceratonia celiqua L., galactomannans, non-fat-yoghurt, texture, viability


Low-fat and non-fat yoghurts have some rheological changes particularly in syneresis and viscosity. Hydrocolloids such as galactomannans (locust bean gum: LBG) can act as fat replacers and can improve the rheological properties of low and non-fat yoghurts. The present study investigates the effect of carob galactomannans on both the viability of starter cultures and textural properties of non-fat yoghurt during cold storage period (4 °C). Carob galactomannans were extracted from carob seeds. Yoghurt was made from skimmed milk powder with the addition of starter culture and locust bean gum at different concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1% W/V). The yoghurt was stored for 28 days at 4°C. Changes in starter microorganisms’ viability, pH, viscosity and syneresis were measured after 24h of manufacturing than every 7 days. Results showed that starter culture microorganisms (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacilus bulgaricus) showed better (P<0.05) retention of viability in yoghurt supplemented with galactomannans (0.05 and 0.1%) in comparison with control. LBG did not showed a significant (P<0.05) effect on pH changes during refrigerated storage of yoghurt. However its hydrocolloid improved (P<0.05) the viscosity and prevented the defect of syneresis during storage at 4°C. Additionally, panelists preferred yoghurt sample with 0.05% LBG. This suggests that these polysaccharides can be used as fat replacers to reduce the problems associated with elimination of fat in fermented dairy products.


Ünal, B., Metin, S., Isikli, N.D. (2003): Use of response surface methodology to describe the combined effect of storage time, locust bean gum and dry matter of milk on the physical properties of low-fat set yoghurt. International Dairy Journal 13: 909-916.

Prasanna, P.H.P., Grandison, A.S., Charalampopoulos, D. (2013): Microbiological, chemical and rheological properties of low fat set yoghurt produced with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Bifidobacterium strains. Journal of Food Research International 51(1): 15-22.

Ramchandra, L., Shah, N.P. (2010): Characterization of functional, biochemical and textural properties of symbiotic low-fat yogurt during refrigerated storage. LWT Food Science and Technology 43: 819-827.

Abbasi, H., Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, M., Reza Ehsani, M., Emam-Jomea, Z., Vaziri, M., Rahimi, J., Aziznia, S. (2009): Influence of starter culture type and incubation temperatures on rheology and microstructure of low fat set yoghurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology 62(4): 549-555.

Sanchez, C., Zuniga-Lopes, R., Schmitt, C., Despond, J. (2000): Hardy J. Microstructure of acid-induced skim milk-locust bean gum-xanthan gels. International Dairy Journal 10: 199-212.

Everett, D.W., Mc Leod, E.R. (2005): Interactions of polysaccharide stabilisers with casein aggregates in stirred skim-milk yoghurt. International Dairy Journal 15: 1175–1183.

Sittikijyothin, W., Torres, D., Gonçalves, M.P. (2005): Modelling the rheologicalbehaviour of galactomannanaqueous solutions. Journal of Carbohydrates and Polymers 59(3): 339-350.

Simoes, J., Nunes, F.M., Domingues, M.R., Coimba, M. (2011): Demonstration of the presence of actylation and arabinose branching as structural features of locust bean gum galactomannanes. Journal of Carbohydrates and Polymers 82: 1476-1483.

Rizzo, V., Tomaselli, F., Gentile, A., La Malfa, S., Maccarone, E. (2004): rheological properties and sugar composition of locust bean gum from different carob varieties (Ceratonia siliqua L.). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 52: 7925−7930.

Dakia, P.A., Blecker, C., Robert, C., Wathelet, B., Paquot, M. (2008): Composition and physicochemical properties of locust bean gum extracted from whole seeds by acid or water dehulling pre-treatment. Journal of Food Hydrocolloids 22 (5): 807-818.

Bouzouita, N., Khaldi, A., Zgoulli, S., Chebil, L., Chekki, R., Chaabounia, M.M., Thonart, P. (2007): The analysis of crude and purified locust beangum: A comparison of samples from different carob tree populations in Tunisia. Journal of Food Chemistry 101: 1508–1515.

Rocha, C., Xaeira, JA., Hilliou, L., Sampaio, P., Gonçalves, M.P. (2009) : Rheological and structural characterization of gels from whey protein hydrolysates/locust bean gum mixed systems. Journal of Food Hydrocolloids 23: 1734-1745.

Simitaru I, Segal, R. (2014): Sensorial characteristics of yogurt obtained with YF-L811 culture. Journal of Food technology: 66-70.

Dakia, P.A., Watherlet, B., Paquot, M. (2007) : Isolation and chemical evaluation of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) seed germ. Journal of Food Chemistry 102: 1368-1374.

Avallone, R., Plessi, M., Baraldi, M., Monzani, A. (1997): Determination of chemical composition of carob (Ceratonia siliqua): protein, fat, carbohydrates, and tannins. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 10: 166-172.

Kök, M.S. (2007): A comparative study on the compositions of crude and refined locust bean gum: In relation to rheologicalproperties. Journal of Carbohydrates polymers 70: 68-76.

Luquet, F.M., Corieu, G. (2005): Bactéries lactiques et probiotiques, Ed. TEC et DOC, Lavoisier, Paris.

Glušac, J., Stijepić, M., Đurđević-Milošević, D., Milanović, S., Kanurić, K., Vukić, V. (2015): Growth and viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in traditional yoghurt enriched by honey and whey protein concentrate. Iran Journal of Veterinary Research 16 (3): 249-54.

Sichani, M.S., Ardakani, S.A.Y., Mohammad Daneshi, M. (2014): The effetc of cressseedgum and locustbeangum on textural properties of low fat set yogurt. Indian Journal of sciences research 5 (1): 439-445.

Abu Jdayil, B., Mohameed, H. (2002): Experimental and modelingstudies of the flow properties of concentratedyogurt as affected by the storage time. Journal of Food Engineering 52: 359-365.

Nautiyal, O.H. (2012): Effect of Galactomannans and LowEsterifiedPectinCombinations on Fruit PreparationSynersis, Rheology and Stability on Storage, International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 2 (2): 6-11.

Bourgeois, C.M., Larpent, J.P. (1996): Microbiologie alimentaires, aliments fermentés et fermentations alimentaires, Tome 2, Ed. Tec et Doc, Lavoisier, Paris.

Tamime, A.Y, Robinson, R.K. (1999): Yogurt: Science and technology. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Wood head Publishing Ltd.

Ghasempour, Z., Alizadeh, M., Bari, MR. (2012): Optimisation of probiotic yoghurt production containing Zedo gum, International Journal of Dairy Technology 65 (1): 118-125.

Lucey, J.A. (2002): Formation and physicalproperties of milkprotein gels. International Journal of Dairy Sciences 85(2) : 281–294.

Hematyar, N., Samarin, A.M., Poorazarang, H., Elhamirad, A.H. (2012): Effect of Gums on YogurtCharacteristics. World Applied Sciences Journal 20 (5): 661-665.

Rafik, L., Zahoor, T., Sagheer, A., Khalid, N., Rahman, U., Liaqat, A. (2020): Augmenting yogurt quality attributes through hydrocolloidal gums. Journal of Animal Sciences 33(2): 323–331.

Dave, R.I., Shah, N.P. (1998): Ingredient supplementation effects on viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurt. Journal of Dairy Sciences 81: 2804-2816.

Bruno-Bárcena, J., Ragout, A., Córdoba, P. (1999): Continuous production of L(+) lacticacid by Lactobacillus casei in two-stage systems. Applied microbiology and Biotechnology 51: 316–324.

Hess, S.J., Roberts, R.F., Ziegler, G.R. (1997): Rheological properties of non-fat yogurt stabilized using Lactobacillus delbruekiissp. bulgaricus producing exopolysaccharide or using commercial stabilizer systems. Journal Dairy Sciences 80: 252-263.

Koksoy, A., Kilic, M. (2003): Use of hydrocolloids in textural stabilization of a yoghurt drink, ayran. Food Hydrocolloids 18: 593–600.




How to Cite

Sadoud, M., Ziar, H., & Riazi, A. (2022). EFFECT OF CAROB GALACTOMANNANS ON STARTER CULTURES VIABILITY AND ON TEXTURAL PROPERTIES OF REFRIGERATED NON-FAT YOGHURT. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 16(2), 296–307. Retrieved from https://jabsonline.org/index.php/jabs/article/view/990